27 Nov 2022
Views 1

Topic: Yangju Byeolsandae Yeoniptal Mask (양주 별산대 연잎탈 가면)

Team: West Bengal Team 1

Writers: Bijuri Dey, Pallabi Das, Meghobarna Kundu, Himani Saha


‘Yangju Byeolsandae Yeoniptal Mask' or “양주별산대 연잎탈 가면” refers to a typical face mask used during the Yangju Byeolsandae Nori or Korea’s cultural mask-dance drama. The culture and traditional history of Korea has a record of using masks in several contexts. Masks were used during wars, during the performance of a Shamanic ritual along with theatrical and traditional dance performances (Joung, 2020).


Masks play a significant role in Korean tradition. There are approximately 250 types of masks which are used for dance drama, an essential part of the country’s rich cultural heritage. The origin of Yangju Byeolsandae Yeoniptal Mask is Yangju (양주), Gyeonggi Province. This mask is an integral part of the Yangu Byeolsandae Nori (양주별산대놀이), the first dance-mask play that was recognised as an “important intangible cultural property” (Jeon, 2005).

Character and Symbolism:

The mask usually represents a character known as “Yeoniptal” (연잎탈)- a Buddhist monk of higher rank with mystical strength and power. (mask museum). The duty of this character is to punish the corrupted monks. As the dance drama portrays, “Yeoniptal” character rebukes “Sangjwa” (상좌)- a dishonest monk character with typical youthful mischievousness. ( Some of the other characters of this kind of dance drama are “Yangban” (양반) or the aristocrats, “Chungin” (청인) or the middle class, “Seomin” (서민) or the commoners, “Cheonmin” or the lower class characters, doctor, shaman, courtesan, servant and so on (Park, Choe, 2016).

The mask dance has always remained popular among the people. The idea was to eradicate existing social and cultural barriers. Once the performers wore musk, they became free from the societal restrictions and conventions. They can finally behave the way they want.

The mask dance used to begin with a sacrificial rite. “Yeoniptal” masks along with its counterpart “Nunggeumjeogi” were placed on the other side. They get honorary possessions because they are believed to ward off evil spirits. Some of these masks such as those of (for ex.“Sangjwa”) can also be called an essential item for the exorcism ritual purposes (

(Yangju Byeolsandae Yeoniptal Mask)

• Material:

The masks are mostly made of wood. Some masks are made of cotton hood and paint. Red has always been a prominent colour in Korean masks. The apparently grotesque shape and size of the masks may create a disruption in the minds of the viewers’ at first glance but that gets changed gradually. The exaggerated noses, eyes or mouths and other facial features seem to be based on the emotions portrayed by the characters wearing the Yeoniptal masks.(Oh, 1982). The primary colour red represents the sheer power, emotion and individuality of the character.

• Venues for Yeoniptal Mask Dance:

In general, Mask dances are performed in front of an open audience. The primary reason is to bridge the gap between the viewers and the performers. They can watch the performance from their own seats around the stage. The more they cheer the more intense those performances can get.

• Timing:

Performers wear Yangju Byeolsandae Yeoniptal Masks during the performance which generally takes place on festive days such as Buddha’s Birthday on April 8, Thanksgiving, Dano and so on. The mask dance is also accompanied by an hourglass shaped drum, large bamboo flutes and so on (Oh, 1982).

• Impact:

Apart from  being recognised as a cultural icon, this mask play is known for creating an impact on the people. The dance acts as a release of emotions and suppressed desires. The red mask with its exaggerated features tends to mock the dubious nature of the society and ushers the viewers towards weaving a better future where the emotions are not required to be suppressed or hidden (Pakr, 2011)

• References:

1. Joung, Madeline: “Face Mask Culture Common in East, New to West”. Voice of America, April 2, 2020. Retrieved on November 1, 2022.

2. Jeon, Kyung Wook: Korean Mask Dance Dramas: Their History and Structural Principles, 2005.

3. Park Min Jae, Cho Woo Hyun: A Study on the Stage Costume of Yangju Byeolsandae Nori, 2016. Retrieve on November 1, 2022

4. Oh, Kon Cho: “The Mask Dance Theatre from Hwang-hae Province”, Korea Journal, 1982, P 39

5. Pakr, Tayong: Korean Mask-Dance and Aristotle’s Poetics, 2011. Retrieved on November 1, 2022







22 Nov 2022
Views 11

Topic: Korean Seasonal Holidays

Writers: India WB1 Team 2 (English Sub Team: Juhi Majumder, Eshani Bora and Yoshitha Chigarapalli)


The public holidays during which work is suspended by law in South Korea include New Year’s Day, Seollal (or Lunar New Year’s Day, celebrated for 3 days), Chuseok (Mid-autumn Festival on the 15th day of the 8th lunar month, celebrated for 3 days), Buddha’s Birthday (on the 8th day of the 4th lunar month), Children’s Day (May 5), Memorial Day (June 6), and Christmas Day. There are 15 public holidays on which businesses are closed by law and employees have a day off, from which Constitution Day is excluded. The culture of all people in the world is precious. In the modern world, we need to respect and understand other people's cultures, irrespective of differences in nationality, ethnicity, tribe, religion, politics, and ideology. Far beyond the exchanges between states, cultural exchanges today are active not only at the person-to-person level, but a global artistic community has also been formed where information can be transmitted in real-time to any part of the world through the Internet. Perhaps the most essential basis for this exchange without borders is the understanding of each other’s culture. Korean seasonal customs represent the traditions of praying at the beginning of each season or during each holiday on a farming or fishing calendar for good harvests and abundant catches. These customs involved a variety of rituals, games, etc., performed by the family or community. Korean seasonal customs reflect the life of people and nature.


JEONGWOL DAEBOREUM: Referred to by various names such as Sangwon (Kor. 상원, Chin. 上元, lit. High Beginning), Ogiil (Kor. 오기일, Chin. 㣱㑮日, lit. Crown Memorial Day) and Daldo (Kor. 달도, Chin. 怛忉, lit. Sorrow and Anxiety), Jeongwol Daeboreum (Kor. 정월대보름, lit. Great Full Moon of the First Month) is a traditional folk festival held on the tenth day of the first lunar month. Unlike the Lunar New Year’s Day, which was usually celebrated through family events, the Great Full Moon Festival provided an occasion for many community celebrations, including the Dongje (Kor. 동제, Chin. 㟳祭, lit. Village Tutelary Festival). The purpose of these celebrations was to promote unity and solidarity among the community members. During the Great Full Moon Festival people engaged in various divination practices related to the harvest. In one such ritual referred to as Daljip taeugi (Kor. 달집태우기, lit. Burning the Moon House), young villagers on a hill built a house called Daljip (Kor. 달집, lit. Moon House) with straw, pine needles, and tree branches. Cheering loudly, they set it on fire when the moon began to rise.


IWOL CHOHARU: First day of the second lunar month, Iwol choharu, (Kor. 이월 초하루) was traditionally celebrated as a holiday. -is holiday is also known as Meoseumnal (Kor. 머슴날), Nobiil (Kor. 노비일), Adeurennal (Kor. 아드렛날) and Hariadeurennal (Kor. 하리아드렛날), all meaning “Slaves’/Servants’ Day”. The festivity was originally referred to as Junghwajeol (Kor. 중화절, Chin. 中和節), named after measurement sticks (referred to as junghwacheok, Kor. 중화척, Chin. 中和尺), which the king used to bestow upon his servants on this day in order to encourage farming. The holiday is also associated with a number of folk customs. On Iwol Choharu, the servants toured the village in groups, performing music and dances as a form of fundraising event known as geollip (Kor. 걸립, Chin. 乞粒). As the geollip came to a close, the servants would gather for rounds of ssireum (Kor. 씨름, Korean wrestling). Another well-known custom was harvesting rice ears from the hay-wrapped pole made on the Great Full Moon Day (the fifteenth of the first lunar month) and baking them into cakes stuffed with sweetened soybeans. Servants were served these cakes called naitteok (Kor. 나이떡, lit. age cake), with the number of cakes served to correspond to each servant’s age.


 HANSIK: Hansik (Kor. 한식, Chin. 寒食, lit. cold food) occurs on the 105th day after the winter solstice and is approximately April 6th on the Gregorian calendar. It is one of the four major holidays in Korea, along with New Year’s Day, Dano, and Chuseok. According to a Chinese custom, people refrained from using fire and ate cold food on this day. For this reason, the day can also be referred to as Geumyeonil (Kor. 금연일, Chin. 禁煙日, lit. no smoke day), Suksik (Kor. 숙식, Chin. 熟食, lit. cooked food), or Naengjeol (Kor. 냉절, Chin. 冷節, lit. Cold Day). As Hansik is not based on the lunar calendar, it can fall during either the second or the third lunar month. In traditional Korea, people believed that if Hansik occurred in the second lunar month, it was a sign suggesting a good year with warm weather. When Hansik fell on the third lunar month, people in some regions avoided planting grass on their family burial mounds on that day. In modern Korea, Hansik has lost much of its importance compared to the Goryeo (918-1392) and Joseon (1392-1910) dynasties because many of the related customs and festivities have been forgotten. However, customs related to ancestor worship are still practiced. Families may hold a memorial service in their ancestral shrine or travel to their family’s gravesites. In Seoul and its vicinities, families sometimes perform a worship service to mountain spirits before proceeding to an ancestor memorial ceremony. Tombs of distant ancestors who were not included in the memorial services or relatives who died without a direct descendant are also visited on this day.


CHOPAIL: Chopail (Kor. 초파일, Chin. 初八日, Shakyamuni’s Birthday) is the Birthday of Shakyamuni, the founder of Buddhism. The day can be referred to as Bucheonim Osinnal (Kor. 부처님 오신 날, Buddha’s Advent Day), Bultanil (Kor. 불탄일, Chin. 佛誕日, Buddha’s Birthday), Yokburil (Kor. 욕불일, Chin. 浴佛日, Buddha Bathing Day) and Seoktanil (Korean. 석탄일, Chin. 釋誕日, Day of Shakyamuni’s Birth). The most common name of this day, Sawol Chopail (Kor. 사월 초파일), meaning “the eighth of the fourth lunar month”, is also the date on which the holiday is celebrated in Korea and China. In Japan, Buddha’s Birthday is celebrated on April eighth according to the Gregorian calendar. Shakyamuni’s Birthday is one of the four major Buddhist holidays. Shakyamuni’s Birthday is arguably the most important of all four Buddhist holidays. It is a popular holiday in Korea and is often celebrated by people of all religious beliefs. Brightly-colored paper lanterns are hung in temples and homes, along the sides of streets, and various celebratory events are held on the day of Shakyamuni’s birth and are marked with religious symbolism. Considered to be the day of light, lanterns decorate the streets as symbols of wisdom and enlightening.

Fifth Lunar Month 

DANO: Dano (Korean - 단오, Chinese - 端午 English - first fifth) is the first traditional holiday on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month. The word translates to 단 meaning first, and 오 meaning five. It is one of the major holidays celebrated on the sunniest day of the month just before summer. In the past, it was believed to be a day abundant with yang energy meaning it could chase away evil spirits and bad luck from families. Koreans also collected herbs such as mugwort and motherwort to protect themselves from evil spirits. They carved seals on Dano for good fortune and luck. Danocheop (Korean- 단오첩, Chinese- 端午帖) is a collection of poems recorded during the Joseon Dynasty to celebrate Dano but this eventually lost meaning in the later years. Gangneung Danoje (Korean - 강릉 단오제, Chinese - 江陵端午祭) folk festival is celebrated on the day of Dano and has been designated as Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 2005. It consists of a number of shamanic rituals headed by a female shaman. The main event of this festival is the Gangneung Danogut (Korean - 강릉 단오굿, Chinese - 江陵端午-) which delivers the wishes of humans to the Gods and Goddesses. Daechunamu sijip bonaegi (Korean – 대추나무시집보내기, meaning date tree mating) is a custom of Dano which promote tree fertility. Danojang (Korean - 단오장, Chinese - 端午粧, meaning Dano decoration) is another custom of Dano to adorn oneself during the festival to keep away from evil spirits. According to traditional Korean history, women used to wash their hair and face with changpo extract which is believed to help with hair loss and maintain healthy hair. New clothes were worn by the people as they did on New Year's to indicate the folk festival.


YUDU: Yudu (Korean - 유두, Chinese - 流頭) is a traditional summer festival held on the fifteenth of the sixth solar month. Yudu is a water festival literally meaning people wash their hair and body towards the east. The direction of the east indicates the flow of positive energy that is yang. This folk festival has been celebrated since the Silla Dynasty. Nongsinje (Korean - 농신제, Chinese - 農神祭, meaning rite for agricultural god) is a rite that takes place during Yudu when farmers pray for a good harvesting season and it takes place on three occasions that is on Yudu, Sambok (Korean - 삼복, Chinese - 三伏, three hottest days in the sixth and seventh lunar months), and Chilseok (Korean - 칠석, Chinese - 七夕, the seventh day of the seventh lunar month). A specialty of this site is the usage of oil which was used by farmers in the past in their fields to keep the crops safe from pests and insects. Yudu Cheonsin (Korean - 유두천신, Chinese - 流頭薦新, meaning offering of new on Yudu) is another rite during Yudu where the harvested crops and fruits are offered to the ancestral spirits as an expression of gratitude. 


SAMBOK: Sambok (Korean - 삼복, Chinese - 三伏) refers to the three days in the sixth and seventh lunar months, which are known to be the hottest days of the year. During Sambok Koreans have samgyetang, and porridge to keep their health during the summer heat. Farmers also did a rite called bokje to offer food to the God of agriculture wishing for an abundant harvesting season. Customs such as Bokdarim (Korean - 복달임, meaning picnic on Sambok) is when people go on picnics to nearby streams and valleys. Takjok (Korean - 탁족, Chinese - 濯足, meaning washing feet) is the custom of dipping feet in cold water to beat the heat of summer and stimulate the energy of the body to improve one's health. Such customs were done to tackle the heat and mark the coming of a new season soon.


BAEKJUNGJE: Baekjungje (Korean - 백중제, Chinese - 百中祭) is a traditional folk festival celebrated in Jeju Island on the day of Baekjung (Korean - 백중, Chinese - 百中, Buddhist All Souls’ Day) where the farmers pray for the safety, health, and fertility of their cattle. The three important livestock pigs, cows, and horses are tended by the cattle farmers or by the community jointly. The festival starts off with a sacrificial rite and then with a feast for the entire community. Families also prepare food to offer to their guardian deities and conduct a rite called Seommeori (Korean - 섬머리, meaning island’s head).


JUNGYANGJEOL: Jungyang refers to a date where the number of the lunar month and the day are the same and both are odd. Such days in fengshui are considered full of positive energy and include the third of the third month, the fifth of the fifth month, the seventh day of the seventh lunar month, and the ninth of the ninth month. Among these days, the ninth of the ninth month is considered the most important and is referred to as Jungyangjeol (Kor. 중양절, Chin. 重陽節, holiday of the ninth day of the ninth lunar month). Depending on the region, the holiday may also be called Junggu (Kor. 중구, Chin. 重九) or Gwil (Kor. 귈). Koreans believe that Jungyangjeol swallows that have come to the peninsula on the third of the third lunar month start their journey southward. Around this time farmers harvest their last crops. As a variety of family gatherings and events were held on Jungyangjeol, government officials were granted the day off. In appreciation of the positive spirit of Jungyangjeol, no executions of criminals could take place on that day. As Jungyangjeol occurred at the height of the chrysanthemum blossom season, many of the customs were related to this flower. People brewed chrysanthemum wine and ate chrysanthemum rice pancakes. A native variety of chrysanthemum, called gamguk (Kor. 감국, Chin. 甘鞠, lit. sweet chrysanthemum), was used for wine and rice pancakes because of the flower’s strong scent and enduring colors. Gukhwajeon (Chrysanthemum rice pancakes), is still popular today. The holiday also had a clear association with paying respect to the elderly and the idea of longevity. There is a connection that can be seen in customs that include royal banquets for elderly court members and drinking chrysanthemum wine to stay healthy and live a longer life.



MALLAL: Mallal (Kor. 말날, Chin. 午日, lit. Horse Day) refers to the first day of the tenth lunar month with a celestial stem meaning “horse.” Also known as Mail (Kor. 마일, Chin. 馬日), this day is recognized as an equine appreciation day. Historically, it was associated with the custom of placing rice cakes coated with mashed red beans, known as pat-tteok (Kor. 팥떡), in front of a stable and praying for the health of the horses. People also paid homage to the horses by offering special treats to the animals on the year’s first Day of the Horse in the first lunar month, known as Sangoil. However, the Horse Day in the tenth month was deemed more important. In contemporary Korea, rural communities still consider Mallal an auspicious day and often choose it for the autumn rite which is aimed at thanking spirits for good crop yields. It is not precisely known when the custom of holding a rite at the horse stable on Mallal first began. During the Unified Silla period (BCE 57-CE 935) under the reigns of Queen Seondeok (632-647) and King Hyegong (765-780), proper nouns in vernacular Korean were replaced with Chinese-style names, and many customs were changed according to the way that they were conducted in China. Presumably, the horse stable rite also underwent a transformation at this time, affecting the manner in which the custom was observed in ordinary homes. Although, in modern Korea such practical necessity has disappeared, certain horse-worshipping customs are still observed mostly due to the symbolism of this animal. The horse represents vigor, vitality, and, by extension, prosperity, and fertility. One example of such customs is the practice of placing new grain in a jar for the land tutelary god on the Day of the Horse.


DAESEOL: Daeseol (Kor. 대설, Chin. 大雪, lit. big snow) is the twenty-first of the twenty-four solar terms; it follows Soseol (Kor. 소설, Chin. 小雪, Day of First Snow), and precedes Dongji (Kor. 동지, Chin. 冬至, Winter Solstice). This day is supposed to be the time of the season’s largest snowfall. Although this may have been the case in the Heibei region of China where the traditional East Asian calendar system originated, the amount of snow is not necessarily the greatest at this time on the Korean peninsula. Occurring sometime in the eleventh lunar month, Daeseol usually falls on December seventh or eighth on the Gregorian calendar and corresponds to the time when the sun is at an ecliptic longitude of 255°. The eleventh lunar month, also the time of the Winter Solstice marks the transition point toward mid-winter and is the beginning of the off-season in farming communities. With their granaries filled with the fruits of their hard work, households do not need to worry about a lack of food and can afford to attend to other businesses, such as preparing for the New Year celebrations. In popular belief, a large snowstorm on Daeseol day is a harbinger of a warm winter. It seldom snows on this date and if it does, the amount is insignificant.


NABIL: Nabil (Kor. 납일, Chin. 臘日, lit. Hunting Day) designates the third-day mi-il (Kor. 미일, Chin. 未日, day of lamb) after Dongji (Kor. 동지, Chin. 冬至, Winter Solstice). It is also known as nappyeong (Kor. 납평, Chin. 臘平), gapyeong (Kor. 가평, Chin. 嘉平), gapyeongjeol (Kor. 가평절, Chin. 嘉平節), or naphyangil (Kor. 납향일, Chin. 臘享日). As Nabil generally occurs at the end of the year, families used to spend this day reflecting on the year that was and honoring the memories of their ancestors by offering sacrifices on their altars. The service was also meant as a report to the ancestors’ spirits about the outcome of the year’s farming. In the royal ancestral shrine Jongmyo (Kor. 종묘, Chin. 宗廟), the king informed the spirits of past kings how the country had fared during the year. Meanwhile, farming results were stated during the service held at Sajik (Kor. 사직, Chin. 社稷, lit. Royal Ancestral Altar). These two rites were respectively referred to as Jongmyo-daeje (Kor. 종묘대제, Chin, 宗廟大祭) and Sajik-daeje (Kor. 사직대제, Chin. 社稷大祭). The ancestral memorial service on Nabil in ordinary Joseon households was called naphyang (Kor. 납향, Chin. 臘享, lit. Nabil rite) and followed proceedings similar to those of regular memorial services held at a shrine or at home on major family holidays. Nap (Kor. 납, Chin. 臘) in the word Nabil is derived from the character ryeop (Kor. 렵, Chin. 獵) meaning “hunting”, which was indeed practiced on this day. While any game caught during Nabil was supposed to be beneficial for health, sparrow meat was believed to be particularly good for the elderly or frail. Snow that fell on Nabil was saved, melted into water, and used to cure bodily ailments as well as to prevent maggots by treating objects before they were stored. Clean snow was first shoveled and collected in a jar. Once it melted, the water was used to make a paste and pills by mixing with a medicine powder; to wash the eyes of those suffering from eye diseases; to rub onto books or clothes to keep worms and moths away, or to add to kimchi to keep it fresh for longer. In some provinces, there is a custom of making taffies in the evening.


Culture of South Korea

Korean traditional festivals

Lunar month



Suchana Dutta
10 Nov 2022
Views 6

TOPIC: Korean environment cooperation (한국 환경 협력단)

TEAM MEMBERS: Rupkatha Pal, Suchana Dutta(WB1, team~3)


Korea Environment Corporation:


K-eco aims to contribute to eco-friendly development of Korea through the effective operation of greenhouse gas reduction programs to prevent environmental pollution, improve the environment. Facilitate resource recycling and respond to climate change. (Law No. 11446, the K-eco Act)

Their mission is to contribute to eco-friendly national development through the improvement of the environment and promotion of resource circulation. Their vision is the establishment of healthy and happy environment for the nature and human beings. Their slogan is “Closer to Nature, Closer to People”. Their management policies are Innovation, Harmony, and Transparency. The key values are Professionalism, Customer-centered purpose, Challenging spirit, and Globalization.

5 strategic target ,15 strategic tasks:

Creating a clean atmospheric environment:

 Implementation of solutions for a new climate system, Establishment of a scientific air quality monitoring system, Improved management of air contaminants.

Creation of healthy water environment:

Prevention of deterioration of the water environment, Support for recovering the health of the hydro-ecological system, Establishment and operation of future water and sewage infrastructure.

Building a society that sustainably re-circulates resources:

Improved operation of a resource circulation system, Establishment of a waste management system based in ICT, Laying the foundation for energy recovery from wasted resources.

Construction of a safe living environment:

Establishment of an environment safe from chemicals, Extension of environmental services that are closely related to everyday life, Establishment of safe soil environments.

Reinforce of institutional abilities to prepare for the future:

 Discovery of growth engines for the future, Management support and security control ability, Improvement of people’s trust through strategic public relations.

Management Disclosure:

Information disclosure system is an act to ensure the people’s right and to secure their participation to protect the right and the benefit in the end to realize the true democracy by either prescribing the information asked from the public in the form of reading /copy/duplication or spontaneously (or by the law) disclosing the information which is preserved obligatorily by the public institution. Applicants (all the applicants who have the right to request the information disclosure are as below):

 Every people :

 In case of the person under the middle school age , they can request through their representative , and in case of high school age and above, they can have the right to request themselves in the boundary of understandable purpose and the contents if affordable.

 Corporation and Organization :

 Corporation is an entity of social interactions and has appropriate social value so it is allowed to have the claim for information disclosure.

 Foreigners:

 Foreigners who reside in a certain place or temporarily stay for the purpose of study or the corporation(organization) which has an office in domestic area.



 Operation of the GHG and Energy TMS:

∆Supporting GHG Reduction Policies; The object of this system is to designate and manage corporations that emit more than specific amount of GHG in order to achieve medium-term targets (40% reduction in GHG emissions in 2030 compared to 2018) according to Carbon Neutral Green Growth Framework Act for Response to Climate Crisis.

∆Setting target; First, derive expected emissions amount of target year of each company considering the average emissions of three years right before designation year.

Then, set the emission allowance by applying the annual national reduction rate to the derived expected emission amount according to Carbon Neutral Green Growth Framework Act for Response to Climate Crisis.

∆Implementation System; Relevant ministries set the annual target with consideration of new, additional facilities and potential reduction (Bottom-up) after the target of each sector and category of business is set (Top-down)

Relevant ministries continuously evaluate implementation plans and reports to manage goals of GHG reduction.

∆Main task; Supporting functions of overall control on Green House Gas target management Examining appropriateness, duplication or omission in selection of reporting entities of each agency Assisting an agency responsible for each sector with the review and evaluation Establishing Guidelines on Green House Gas Target Management Green House Gas target management in the public sector Examining implementation plans in the public sector Evaluating performance tracking report in the public sector Green House Gas target management in the waste sector Examining GHG data report Examining implementation plans and performance report Selecting designated objects of reporting entities Establishing GHG targets for reporting entities Technical support for reporting entities

Supporting management and preparations for GHG data reporting, implementation plan, performance report and other involved reports Technical supports on devising reduction plans Supporting operation for the reduction of GHG and ways of improving efficiency of facilities.

 Implementation of Green house gas reduction project:

∆Developing and vitalizing CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) project; Advanced countries which have ceilings for GHG emissions (emission caps), assist developing countries that do not have emission caps, to implement project activities to reduce GHG emissions (or removed by sinks), and credits will be issued based on emission reductions (or removed by sinks) achieved by project activities.

∆CDM project cycle; 01 Planning a CDM Project activity--) Project Participants 02 Making the project design document--) Project Participants 03 Getting approval from each party involved--) DNA 04 Validation--) DOE 05 Registration--) CDM EB 06 Monitoring a CDM project activity--) Project Participants 07 Verification and Certification--) DOE 08 Issuance of CERS--) CDM EB 09 Distribution of CERS--) Project Participants.

∆Operation of Offset System; The offset is a system to secure flexibility in achieving greenhouse gas reduction targets. The entities that has been assigned a mandatory greenhouse gas reduction amount can utilize offset credits which is certified by the government for achieving their reduction goal in Emission Trading Scheme(ETS). K-eco provides needed support to enable the offset system to be implemented properly.


 Sewerage Policy Support:

∆"We induce efficient construction of public sewerage treatment facilities for better public waters!"; Department of sewerage conducts technical consultations to ensure that master plan for sewerage management established by local governments is established in a highly efficient and rational manner.

Through the design consulting of the public sewerage treatment facility, we review the appropriateness of the sewage treatment method, the scale of the facilities, and the installation cost, thereby contributing to the efficient installation of the public sewage treatment facilities and the efficient execution of the national budget.

 Technical support for government policy on urban flood prevention:

∆The Sewerage Sewer System Policy Support Team contributes to the efficient operation of the national sewage system by providing technical advice on the project and sewerage maintenance measures to prevent urban flooding by local governments.

∆Major Tasks; support policy on urban flood prevention in a priority control area of sewerage maintenance

A priority control area of sewerage maintenance means an area where the Minister of Environment may designate an area where flood damage occurs, or is likely to occur, due to sewage inundation or an area which is likely to worsen the quality of public waters as an area for priority control of sewerage maintenance

Technical review of designation or revocation of a priority control area Technical review of sewerage maintenance measures and design of business Technical review of about the raising and spending of funds on business of urban flood prevention.

∆Legal Basis; ENFORCEMENT RULE OF THE SEWERAGE ACT Article 1-3(Designation, etc. of Areas for Priority Control of Sewerage Maintenance)

④ When it is deemed necessary to designate, change or abolish the priority control area, or to review for sewerage maintenance measures which is established pursuant to Article 4-3(3) by the Special Metropolitan City Mayor, each Metropolitan City Mayor, Mayors/Do Governors(excluding the head of a Gun in a metropolitan city), The Minister of Environment may hear opinions from the head of National Institute of Environmental Research or Korea environment corporation in advance.


 Confiscated Goods Recycling Program:

∆K-eco contributes to the advancement of efficient use of resource and resource recirculation system by transporting, storing, disposing, and recycling illegal game machines and oil products acquired by the police and the prosecutors into legal objects using its own manpower, equipment, and facilities.

∆Resource Recovery of Illegal Game Machines and Computers ; The game machines and computers acquired from investigation authorities are stored and they selected in accordance with the Business Process Guideline of Confiscated Goods based upon the authorities' direction of disposal. There recyclable items are sold through competitive bids and other items are sold to disposal agencies or recycling agents after their use is abolished.

 Financial Support for the Recycling Establishment:

∆This service aims to foster the recycling business by providing financial support (K-eco provides 80~95%) for those who intend to establish recycling businesses, there by shortening the period of business establishment and minimizing the business establishment cost.

4.ENVIRONMENTAL INFRASTRUCTURE:7  Ecological Restoration for the Riparian Area:

∆Ecological Restoration for the Riparian Area; Describes a set of activities that help improve the environmental health of a river or stream.

Causes of poor environmental health : urbanization, channelization, construction with artificial materials and so on.

∆Launched by the name of 'Eco-Stream Restoration Projects' by Ministry of Environment from the year of 2002.

∆Subdivided into 'several specialized projects' for some specific objectives according to characteristics of streams.

∆Several specialized projects; Eco-Stream Restoration Projects Urban Stream Restoration Projects Flagship Species Restoration Project Fish-way Construction Projects.

 Non Point Source Pollution Reduction: 

∆Non Point Source Pollution Project;

The Non Point Source (NPS) refers to the source of emission where the water pollutants are discharged in an unspecified manner from the unspecified places such as cities, roads, agricultural fields, mountainous areas and construction site. In this regard, K-eco installs the Non Point Source Monitoring Center to manage the NPS appropriately.

Non Point Source Reduction in Urban Areas to handle the NPS generated from the residential, commercial, and industrial areas, the ecological retention sites and the ecological parking lots are installed while the infiltration trenches and retention ponds are built by the roads. In the meantime, the large-scale equipment-type facilities are installed in the industrial areas.

Non Point Source Reduction in Rural Areas

To handle the fertilizer, agrochemical, muddy water, and manure washed off by rainwater from the agricultural and livestock houses, the constructed wetlands of high efficiency are installed.


 Operation of environment love Exhibition & Education Hall:

∆K-eco operates 7 permanent exhibition & education halls to educate and encourage the children and the public to practice green life.

 Management Noise and Vibration Monitoring Network:

∆The automatic monitoring network of the noise for environment and aircraft; Maintenance of environmental/aircraft noise monitoring instruments and analysis of the monitoring data.

∆The monitoring network of the railroad noise and road vibration; Analysis of the monitoring data. 


Sucheta Adhikary
24 Oct 2022
Views 16
  1. Topic: Housing System and House Warming in South Korea
  2. Writer: WBT2 (English Sub Team: Diyasha Datta and Sucheta Adhikary)  


Wikipedia: Housing System and House Warming in South Korea

South Korea has successfully made into the list of nations that witnessed the most rapid urban transformations in the human history. Comprehending the ensuing urban morphology and the changed inter-personal relationships in the modern city requires understanding the evolutionary phases of the different housing systems that emerged as a result of modernization. After the initial adaptation of the traditional urban house and the early modern developments, the apartment building became the prevailing housing typology in South Korea. Three important aspects have influenced its success. Firstly, the location of the tanji or the collective housing blocks in the city in contrast to the European system where the hosing blocks are located on the outskirts. Second aspect is given as the use of high-quality standards for the construction of apartment buildings that were oriented towards the rising middle-class and not the lower strata of the society. And lastly, unlike in Europe where the vernacular place was seen as a privileged spot, the remaining low-rise residential areas in Korea suffered from a lack of urban and architectural quality and came to be seen as unattractive to the majority of the population. People in Korea began to see apartment buildings as a symbol of modern life and a highly desired product. Nevertheless, apartment buildings still continue to be considered as the best and most convenient preference among all other housing options because of the optimal space and feasibility it serves. In this way, a global architectural typology has been locally conditioned in both its spatial adaptation and in its political application, determining the success of a housing type that has been disparaged elsewhere.

The cities of contemporary South Korea are landscaped by a unique display of sky-scrappers and modern apartment complexes that are home to millions of residents including both native and foreign inhabitants. These housing complexes exhibit omnipresence in their monotonous manifestations that embody and symbolize the dreams and aspirations of the Korean populace. The housing system and the architectural forms have evolved in line with the traditional culture of South Korea that revolves around various social, cultural or religious beliefs. For instance, the number four is seen as unlucky in Korean culture, that explains why elevators in South Korea are designed with the character "F" instead of the number "4" to denote the fourth floor. With the advancement of modern housing and architectural systems, South Korea is not an exception to the widespread adoption of serial mass housing at par with the other emerging nations. Historical speaking, Korea's traditional urban habitations predate the current contemporary metropolis, which has been growing since the 1960s.The decade in which the urbanisation process was thought to have attained its complete maturity was the 1980s. The mass dwelling typology is believed to have greatly aided the urban transformation of the South Korean housing system.

Korea has a peculiar system of housing which is really hard to find in other countries. It is an obvious requirement and desire for any person living in any country to be able to live in a well-furnished house that is able to satisfy ones needs. In such circumstances, renting a house is considered to be the most prevalent and feasible housing alternative if owning or building a home is beyond one’s affordability limit. In most countries, when people choose to rent a house, they are required to pay a minimalistic rent fee every month to the house owner. This is the most usual way all over the world. But strangely, the second choice in Korea is something quite different from the choice in other countries. Besides this main difference concerning the rent fee payment system, there are also other differences concerning the house structure.

For instance, most Americans who cannot afford to buy a home live in rented houses while making monthly rent payments. On the other hand, in Korea, most people who cannot afford to buy a house live in a leased house after depositing a certain amount of money to the lessor. The tenant incurs no additional costs while residing in the leased home if this deposit is paid in full. However, this is by no means a modest sum of money. In contrast to Koreans, who need a lot of money up front, Americans do not require as much money when signing a lease for a home. As a consequence, Koreans must bear the burden of paying the money back along with the interest to the bank. In this respect, the American system seems to be more attractive and convenient.  But there is also another thing to take into account. The Korean government permits the withdrawal of long-term loans for such purposes, at a low interest rate.

The government of the Republic of Korea has proposed a number of housing policies over the years to encourage improvement in the accommodation options on their territory. The eradication of housing shortages and the price stabilization have been the two main objectives of housing policy. The government has been working with the private sector to accomplish these goals while also creating the institutions and legal framework for the public sector, supplying developable land, and allocating housing units to the intended target populations. The nation's severe housing shortage has been alleviated, and general housing conditions have much improved, thanks to the consistent and massive provision of new housing, provided since the 1980s. Enhancing the housing welfare of low-income households and the poor has been added to housing policy aims since the turn of the new millennium. To achieve the new policy goal, the availability of public rental housing was increased, and a housing benefit was implemented, but more work needs to be done in this sector. Due to the nation's demographic and socioeconomic developments, the Republic of Korea now also faces new housing issues.

Housing typology development in South Korea

Initial Modernization: 

During the Japanese colonial era, the Korean Peninsula experienced its first significant modernization impact (1910-45). Even before Korea was annexed, Japan had put enormous pressure on the country. The first wave of urbanisation began in 1876, when Korea was compelled to abandon its long-standing isolationist policy. Five interior communities and ten port cities opened were opened for commercial use, creating new requirements for contemporary urban planning. Japan selected the colony of Korea as the centrepiece of its ambition to expand its empire imperialistically, since the early 1930s. This was followed by a subsequent rise in the construction and modification of various infrastructures nationwide.

In between the foundation (1394) and the colonisation era of Seoul, it did not undergo any significant spatial alteration. The "ordering of streets" urban policy, which began in 1910, changed the original street network by enlarging old thoroughfares and constructing new roadways. The major goal was simply to entirely change the traditional ideas of the original city by introducing economic and military elements to the way the urban area was organised. Prior to this, urban planning was based on a traditional oriental geomantic theory known as Pungsu, or Feng Shui in Chinese. This theory is a collection of theoretical guidelines based on the study of the wind and water. While the main urban fabric was based on a gridiron layout, there existed a maze of subsidiary arteries. According to a report, the space between the axis is described as, “Roads providing access to the houses branch chaotically, forming a convoluted maze of frequent dead-ends, all highlighting the essentially pedestrian nature of this network”. Afterwards, Seoul was remodelled in accordance with new contemporary urban principles that were initially put to the test in Tokyo before being applied to other cities like Osaka, Kyoto, Taipei, and Pyongyang. According to the City Ward Improvement Plans of 1912 and 1919, substantial new avenues were constructed and old roads were enlarged.

The 1920s saw more urban growth, but it is the 1930s that saw the emergence of the first modern planning laws, including the 1936 Gyungsung City Plan and the 1934 Joseon City Planning Act, which led to a significant enlargement of Seoul's boundaries. In terms of architectural advancements, new colonial Western Style structures, primarily public buildings and transportation amenities, were erected in the cities with the intention of strengthening colonial power. Due to the long-standing ties between Japan and the UK, the structures embraced neo-classical eclectic styles that were mostly influenced by Britain.

Fast Metropolitan Revolution:

One of the largest single country-to-city migrations ever recorded took place in Seoul following the Korean War (1950–1953). The "economic miracle of the Han River" in Korea spurted, and since the early 1960s, this region saw rapid demographic expansion. Seoul's uncontrollable urban growth had led to the preservation of the urban organisation introduced by the Japanese colonisers. Planned large-scale public works projects replaced the expropriation and destruction of ad hoc development. From 1961 to 1987, South Korea was governed by a military dictatorship, and under President Park Chung Hee's administration (1961–79), modernization was a top political priority. Massive economic expansion and harsh repression characterised this time period. President Park had a clear intention to use the urban transformation as a tool for social reform, introducing large scale population control in Seoul. Therefore, it was believed that the creation of enormous mass housing complexes, or ap'at'û tanji, was "a very effective tool for guiding and managing the social groups that have been at the core of South Korea's economic success."

Seoul implemented an urban growth management approach based on ring-radial roadway circulation, numerous centres, and green belts to handle an increasing number of new urban settlers. The Garden City and Western New-Town Planning concepts served as the foundation for the suggested urban design. The city's expansion was facilitated by the Comprehensive Development Plan that was created in 1966. It included thirteen radial arterials and four ring highways that were located at various distances from the city center. These routes' intersections were supposed to develop into subcentres. Following this came the 1972 National Development Plan, which included a new greenbelt system and was quickly overtaken by an unplanned development. The strategy also pushed new construction toward the Han River's south side, and the urban developments on both north and south banks of Han attained equivalence by the mid of 1930s. In 1989, five new big towns with a specified range of population densities were built: Ilsan, Jungdong, Sanbon, Pyeongchon, and Bundang. This was part of a larger decentralisation strategy. Songdo Smart City and Sejong Metropolitan Autonomous City are two recent examples of ambitious new town projects.

Features of Large-Scale Housing Complexes:

In this setting, modern apartment buildings expanded over both the city and the countryside to become the predominant housing form and, satiating the South Korean landscape. Serial construction methods "became the prevalent technology of mass housing over the world, and at the same time a stylistic principle of modern city planning," as noted by Florian Urban, a Professor of Architectural History and Head of History of Architectural and Urban Studies. Prefabricated high-rise structures made up less than 4% of South Korea's housing stock in the 1970s, but by 2000, that percentage had increased to a significant 50%. This was also accompanied by a decrease in the share of individual houses during the same time frame, dropping the percentage from 90% to an abysmal 25%. A Japanese corporation had built Korea's first apartment complex, the Mikuni Apartment in Hoehyun-dong, in 1930 to house its employees. In 1935, the construction of the second apartment building in Naejadong had been witnessed. Records indicate that the Yurim apartment, which was the first to be built for rental purposes, was constructed in the same year. However, none of these still exist.

After the liberation of Korea from Japanese colonisation, it was only in 1958 when the first apartment complexes of Korea were constructed. Between 1962 and 1964, the Korean National Housing Corporation (KNHC) constructed the Jongam apartments which comprised of three four-five storeyed high buildings and the first to be equipped with flush toilets. Another construction under KNHC during that time was the Mapo apartments that consisted of ten six-floor building, equipped with individual hot-water heating system. The Mapo apartments created a set of planning principles for the design of the tanji, the autonomous collective housing complexes comprising of at least 300 units with shared facilities. However, the formal laws that applied to the apartment buildings were determined later.

When the government passed the Housing Construction Promotion Act in 1972, the tanji or collective housing blocks expanded at an exponential rate. The Act encouraged the development of high-density residential zones within city boundaries and other newly designated areas after being revised and reinforced in the early 1980s. The tanji thus came to be described as a collection of large urban blocks that had slabs of monofunctional housing with a distribution of few commercial buildings and service amenities.

The Fordist construction technique, which builds residential slabs in a reinforced concrete structure using prefabricated components, was employed in the construction model. Slab Buildings having several vertical access points and a single-loaded corridor system with open corridor facilitating gallery access, became the primary construction types. The ridgeline of the structure that is typically oriented east-west on these slabs maximises solar exposure, leaving the north facade solely as a functional aspect that is aesthetically forgotten. These characteristics enabled the maximum land utilisation accompanied with lowest construction expense; however, it brought about a completely new environment that led to the disintegration of traditional family structures and social relationships. Even so, the apartments evolved into a sign of social prestige and a highly sought-after product that is still in trend. It has been observed that, the classic apartment layout is a fusion of several cultural influences that blends various unique interior designs.

According to prior analysis, the traditional layout of the apartments has been derived from the urban Hanok after being modified to spec house, where the madang (yard) has been incorporated as an internal space within the house and started to serve as a living room. Through Japan, the Western influences spread, bringing with them new construction techniques and new spatial arrangements. In the 1940s, the usual LDK floorplan system (Living, Dining, and Kitchen) was already being developed in Japan. It was later employed in Korea and has since then, become the standard design for contemporary Korean apartments. To merge the continuity and consistency of the traditional plan into the contemporary design, these influences were combined with the conventional floorplan to form a hybrid arrangement along with these foreign systems.

Theories of Hybrid Modernism for Korean Serial Apartments:

Examining the theories of the modern movement and the experiments created by the architects who rallied around the International Congresses of Modern Architecture (CIAM) can prove to be helpful in tracing the architectural references of the Korean contemporary apartment complex. The Congrès internationaux d'architecture moderne (CIAM), or International Congresses of Modern Architecture, was a group that was established in 1928 and disbanded in 1959. It was in charge of a number of gatherings and congresses that the most well-known architects of the time organised across Europe with the aim of spreading the Modern Movement's ideas in all the major areas of architecture (such as landscape, urbanism, industrial design, and many others). Among the projects organized by CIAM, the "The Functional City" (1933) project was an ambitious attempt to apply contemporary methods of architectural analysis and planning to the city as a whole, that took place following the two earlier CIAM conferences on "The Minimum Dwelling" (Frankfurt/Main, 1929) and "Rational Land Development" (Brussels, 1930). In particular, by codifying the paradigm of rigorous urban functional division, Le Corbusier's 1943 release of the Athens Charter prefigured Korean urban design.

The most avant-garde unfinished projects that have impacted many urban planners worldwide served as the inspiration for contemporary Korean development, especially, the ones established at the early 20th century by the greatest modern masters. With the plans for High Rise City in 1924 and Berlin's Gendarmenmarkt Square in 1927, Ludwig Hilberseimer, a German architect and urban planner, contemplated a repetition of similar residential structures organized in a rational geometric arrangement that was utterly detached from the surrounding environment and the existing content. Furthermore, the 1929 house plans by a German-American architect, Walter Gropius, demonstrate a clear scientific approach to the issue of large housing complexes. Le Corbusier's three major urban plans, Contemporary City for Three Million People (1922), Plan Voisin (1925), and The Radiant City (1933), ultimately served as the main inspiration for Korean architecture. His emphasis on height, light, and geometric order were seen as a solution to the unproductive and unhealthy metropolitan sprawl.

The American urban-planner, Clarence Perry's Neighbourhood Unit is another crucial notion that shaped how modern apartment complex development is characterized in Korea. The Neighbourhood Unit theory, which the American urbanist conjectured in 1929, effectively defined a residential block bordered by transportation arteries. The building is intended to be self-sufficient, housing all the services and providing amenities required to maintain the residents therein, including shops and other businesses. The Neighbourhood Unit would be built to house a population of between 3,000 and 9,000 people, which equates to 1,000 to 1,600 children in a primary school. Nonetheless, the residential structures were meant to be low-rise single homes and this urban project can undeniably be associated to The Garden City movement with respect to influence and impact, but it's interesting to note that the Korean tanji were meant to be built right in the centre of the city and in the new expansion areas, whereas the Garden City movement advocated urban dispersal as a response to the crowded urban centre. The final urban design chosen by Korean urban planners merged elements of the modernists' proposal for conjunct high-rise residential towers and slabs with Clarence Perry's Neighbourhood Unit. The real picture, however, portrayed that the tanji were not entirely independent, and the modern city is distinguished by a mix of high-rise and low-rise structures with clear functional distinctions. A distinctive political approach is sighted, while contrasting the 1950s-60s European plans with the Korean tanji and it is observed that the Korean high-rise flats were built within the existing urban regions and were targeted at the expanding middle class and upper-middle class, in contrast to the European projects, which were developed as "social housing" for the poor and situated on the outskirts of the city. In a similar vein, Korean housing was built on a policy of home ownership while social housing in Europe was intended to be rented.

Japan and the United States brought more direct influences to the Land of Morning Calm, which is directly or indirectly reflected in the housing styles. Japan was the only Asian nation to create the Metabolism architectural avant-garde, which had a global impact, and developed its post-war modernization process before Korea. South Korea, on the other hand, had developed a highly distinct corporation system that was characterised by the nation's massive building conglomerates (chaebol). Major housing projects are the tool used to control the real estate market, leaving only the small and middle-scale projects to more autonomous and progressive architectural firms. These large corporations played a key role in the urban and regional transfiguration and continue to do so.

Design of Houses in South Korea

The South Korean culture has developed alongside an eventful past that led to the development of various monuments and structures that align with several religious and social beliefs. The Land of Morning Calm has been ruled by various dynasties and colonised by other nations, witnessing wars, epidemics and adapting to various local and foreign cultures at different points of time in the history. The journey from the traditional Hanok to the high-rise buildings is a result of modification seeking convenience and meeting requirements. Everyday norms of eating, relaxing, and working, as well as industrialised production techniques and geographic conditions, all serve as inspiration for Korean architecture. Materials are used in an attractive way with Asian accents to embellish the buildings with a touch of their own culture. Some of the prevalent elements of Korean home designs are greenery, wide spaces, lots of windows, crystal doors and the presence of sunlight in key locations throughout the house.

Simplified L-shaped Korean House Design:

South Korea is a beautiful country located among the calm and magnificent mountains while the peninsula is surrounded by sea on three sides. The L-shaped house design is known to bring peace and tranquillity allowing an ideal environment for relaxation and recreation. Away from the hustle of a busy city life, these houses are mainly observed in the Korean highlands, the serene haven serving peace and comfort after a busy day of work. The traditional appearance is put up with a touch of Asian flair by incorporating ancient woodworks adorning the entryways and combining the sleek grey roof with the white walls. A wooden terrace surrounds the higher, somewhat elevated portion, which blesses the viewers with a splendorous spectacle. The perfect times to view this sight are in the early morning and just before sunset, when air circulates through all directions. The huge, modest, one-storey house is located away from the road and other commercial structures in a gabion-walled enclosure.

The pure elegance of Hanok:

The regular interactions Koreans have with nature taught them valuable life lessons. Everything, including where and how a residence should go, was carefully evaluated in light of the surroundings. Because of their closeness to nature, people constructed simple homes devoid of superfluous amenities. Hanok is a representation of the ideal relationship between people and nature. Since the Hanok has no ornamentation, a natural style is predominant. The building of this Korean home uses a variety of materials, including mud for the walls and floors, stone for the gudeul (the ondol's central heating system), and wood for the columns and maru. Clay keeps a Hanok warm in the winter and cool in the summer thanks to its inbuilt heating and cooling properties. The extensive usage of hanji, a paper made from the bark of mulberry trees, which is used to cover every solid surface, is another distinctive feature of a Hanok. Hanji has been used to cover doors because of its exceptional permeability and shielding ability, letting in natural light while still keeping the interior warm. Without opening any doors, air may circulate freely throughout the home thanks to intake vents in hanji walls. Compared to homes with glass walls, this is a major advantage.

Stunning Korean house design with a brick and wood frame:

These kinds of dwellings are fairly common in Korea. While brick has a rough texture and irregular patterns that are reminiscent of country homes, wood has a clean feel and crisp lines that are indicative of city life. These two seemingly unrelated landscapes are unexpectedly combined to create a modern Korean house design.

A certain area of the home may have innate landscaping. The house's size is divided by varying floor levels, which also enable it to mix in with the diverse architectural styles of the surrounding area. In this Korean home design, the living, dining, and kitchen spaces are all on the ground floor. On the upper level, there is a playroom, secondary bedroom, and the primary bedroom. There are two terraces outside; the front terrace provides views of the city, while the back patio provides access to the hills beyond. The house's façade features multiple windows to offer some isolation because it is situated on a busy location.

Open-air top flood house designs:

The families that reside in Korea's darkened rooftop houses with elevated mesh gables enjoy a tranquil outdoor area as well as a location for casual business gatherings. The top of the three-story building is decorated with decorative gables made of white corrugated metal and clear PVC panels. Clear plastic lets light in while the metal mesh screens it out to provide a comfortable environment. This third floor gets lots of sunlight and airflow because there is no dividing wall surrounding it. When the doors are opened, the steel and concrete structure of the house dangles up to form a guard rail and partial barrier. Metal beams that are fastened to the sides and down through the flooring support a steel roof. The garage and a distinctive pedestrian entrance, which is framed by an arched concrete slab, are both located on the lower level. A large, open living room on the first floor opens onto a terrace outside that is accessible through a set of stairs.

Korean home plans with concrete ridge ribbons:

This South Korean family home is surrounded by chamfered concrete walls, which results in a dynamic interplay of shadows. This Korean home design has two stories and is constructed to adapt to the area's topography between the highlands and the metropolis. To achieve a distinctive appearance, several materials including cement, stones, bricks, and wood are used.

The concrete bands that surround the house's exterior are its most distinctive feature. These free-form overhangs gently caress the hilly areas, harmonising with the nature much like Hanok roofs do. A few rooms extend to the northern and southern sides of the main hallway, which is very spacious and continuous in design. The main living room's large open window frames face south. The main family living quarters are located on the lower floor and consist of a two-storey lounge and a kitchen cum dining room that opens to the living room. On the upper floor, in addition to the master bedroom, there are three further bedrooms, a second living space, and a separate workstation. Each of these buildings, which are arranged in a row, is connected by a long hallway. This Korean building design makes significant use of glass partitions because they improve lighting transmission.

House designs for multiple generations:

This Korean multi-story home with a vented brick facade is home to several generations of the same family, all of whose apartments are built on top of one another. The six-storey structure occupies the entire space on the little plot of land it is situated on. The facades are cut away at various angles as the building climbs in height to accommodate lighting needs. The ground floor's front empty space of the house has room for the family's vehicles. The uniform brick façade of the home is broken up by openings in places where a certain level of isolation is sought, some of which are partially concealed behind a perforated brick foundation. Two families share the first and second-floor apartments, while a third family takes up the entire third floor, and the top two levels of the home are combined to form a fourth apartment. Three single-family houses are layered on top of one other to create an architectural style for each level that is suited for the lifestyle of each family. Each apartment has all the necessities for a home, but certain communal areas, like the kitchen in the first-floor house, are meant to be used by the whole family. A lot of the internal areas maybe expanded in use, and walls enable different parts to be partitioned into private rooms as needed. Mobility spaces are maintained to a minimum inside the apartments. The flat on the top level features an attic room with a pitch-like ceiling and a flight of open stairs connecting its storeys.

Types of Houses in South Korea:


The most luxurious alternative available to single Koreans is undoubtedly Officetel. "Officetel" is a unique term created from the English words “office" and "hotel." These are apartment-like buildings but their floor layout is designed to be a combination of office and living space. Large developers frequently construct it near the metro stations and on busy roads in commercial regions. It is commonly not secured by the residential renter protection law because it is designed to be a live-and-work space. The majority of these buildings are less than 10-15 years old because officetel is a relatively recent idea. Even though many inhabitants use it as their homes, the same floor can usually consist of a number of businesses, including a nail salon, a massage parlour, or a travel agency office operating simultaneously. Although, officetels provide the best room conditions among all the options available for single households, they are typically also the most expensive alternative. The majority of officetels are studio-style, whereas extremely infrequently, in 2 bed room style. The owner of an officetel usually allows their tenants that are a company or small business owners to register their company/business address using the officetel address. This is kind of cost-effective because the burden of renting a house and a separate office space is eased.


1.Officetels generally come with security system. They include a security guard and round-the-clock-surveillance equipment on the first floor.

2.It’s close to a lot of convenient stores and is situated in a good location, especially in the commercial districts close to subway stations and other facilities.

3. It is provided with some electronic appliances of daily use.


1. They cost much more than other alternatives such as one rooms or studio apartments and it includes the fees for using the elevator.

2. Apart from the housing price, other bills such as gas and electricity expenses also tend to e higher owing to the wider space occupied by officetels as compared to some other alternatives.

3. Officetels never come with an internet service which adds to our expenses of paying for the internet as well.

Ideal users:

 i) People who want to work from home

 ii) Freelancers

 iii) One-man businesses such as accountants, artists or fortune tellers

 iv) Common for students

 v) Ideal for newlyweds who wish to start off at an officetel and go for house upgradations slowly

Rent example
1) Hongik University Station vicinity
Deposit ₩10,000,000 / Monthly Rent ₩850,000 + Maintenance Fee ₩200,000
2) Gwanghwamun Station vicinity (near Gyeongbok Palace, main CBD area)
Deposit ₩10,000,000 / Monthly Rent ₩1,200,000 + Maintenance Fee ₩250,000

Hasokjib (boarding house) (하숙집)

Hasokjib is a kind of family house in which rooms are rented by different people. These houses have shared common areas, that is, shared kitchen, bathroom and living room. These places are usually run and maintained by the lady of the house who looks after the eating, cleaning and laundry requirements of the people living there. In many cases, it is also used as a boarding house where a woman runs a business or teaches while the students are given separate rooms in the hasokjib.


1.People living there don’t need to do their own household work because the lady or the ajumma of the house looks after those kinds of requirements.

2.It’s pretty affordable as it doesn’t require any big deposit to be paid in the beginning.

3.A good option for foreigners as they will be living with locals which gives them the advantage of learning about the Korean culture and language.


1.Hasokjib is a place where different kinds of people live together and most are strangers.

2.It can be a risk to privacy and feel uncomfortable.

3.Language and cultural barrier might be problematic in some cases.

Ideal users:

i)Usually students as these places are located near schools and colleges

ii)People who want a local experience

One-room/Studio Apartments (원룸)

A one-room apartment, or studio, is a compact building that consists of housing unit without a separate bedroom. Housing conditions are not as favourable since one-room structures or villas are typically constructed by private owners on a tiny plot of land. These structures are often constructed in three months by tiny, local home builders who make concessions like using sewage lines or thinner walls. These usually have a kitchenette, a stove, a washing machine, and many additionally include an air conditioner, a refrigerator, a desk, and sometimes even a bed. Before making any form of payment, it is required to negotiate whether "options" (furniture) are included by the contract. Here, the pay deposits rise upto atleast $5000-10,000. The rent can vary from $400 to 4800 which usually depends on the size and location of the apartment. Along with the deposits, these places require the buyers or tenants to find a real estate agent or a mediator in order to find a one-room housing. The contracts are usually for one year minimum. Realtors inquire whether or not, the person looking for a house is alright with "red brick buildings (빨간 벽돌집)" or "ancient structures (구옥)" because red brick buildings were popular in the 1990s. Older structures were constructed with care and have their own unique character while the newly constructed buildings emit Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and chemicals. The rent range can be fairly wide depending on the age of the structure and maintenance status.


1. They are fully furnished alongwith the provision of big appliances, AC, washing machines, stove, fridge and occasionally a microwave and a bed.

2. It allows privacy as it is not a shared house form.

3. It allows to bring in more guests if required.

4. Has a private kitchen that is good for people who enjoy cooking.

5. It is possible to get free internet in studio apartments sometimes.


1. The contract has to be for atleast one year which makes it compulsory to stay in Korea for a minimum of 12 months.

2. The rooms can extremely small and congested.

3. It is quite expensive.

4. It is required to pay commission to the real estate agent.

Ideal users:

 i) students

 ii) non-married working adults

Rent example
Hongik University Station vicinity
Deposit ₩10,000,000 / Monthly Rent ₩600,000 + Maintenance Fee ₩50,000


The Goshiwon is a very small single room closet or dormitory that can only contain a bed and a reading desk. Goshi refers to the national civil service examination. Goshiwon originally started out as a small room for students studying 16 hours a day for Goshi to sleep in an environment with no distractions. Building conditions are the worst in Goshiwon rooms since they are not considered housing units. While some apartments have private showers and toilets, some have common bathrooms in the hallway. Typically, the shower stall in an apartment is so small that taking a shower requires you to sit over the toilet. Noise can be an issue because the partitions between each unit are built of plywood. Additionally, there is poor air ventilation. Some apartments might even be windowless. Many international students opt to reside in Goshiwon despite these disadvantages. They are majorly situated around universities in Korea and are student-friendly in terms of cost. It's inexpensive and simply takes a deposit of one month's rent. Goshiwon is a commitment-free alternative to one-room, officetel, and two-room apartments, all of which often demand a one- or two-year lease and a sizable deposit. Additionally, it is outfitted with a bed, table, chair, refrigerator, TV, common washing machine, and is frequently provided with complimentary rice and kimchi.


1. It’s really cheap and requires paying a rent per month instead of submitting a large amount as deposit.

2. Goshiwon that cost a little bit more than the cheapest ones come with a shared kitchen that provides free rice, Kimchi or even Ramyeon.

3. The rent varies from $200/₩200,000 to $500/₩500,000 providing a wide range of options at a lower price.


1. These are extremely tiny places with no proper window and ventilation system.

2. A lot of these places are segregated by gender and the partitions between apartments are very thin which makes it difficult to bring in guests if required.

3. Although these houses provide with air conditioning and heating systems, they are non-adjustable which makes it difficult to control the temperature of the room.

Ideal users:

Students and people who don’t spend much time at home.

ii) People who only need a place to sleep.

Rent example
Hongik University Station vicinity
Deposit ₩500,000 / Monthly Rent ₩500,000

Apartment (아파트)

Population density in Korea is ten times higher than the world average. Cities with limited space have extremely dense populations, which results in an abundance of apartments. The Korean word "apateu (아파트)", which is derived from the English word "apartment," is used a little differently than it is in the United States or other countries. Apartments are huge buildings, usually over 5 storeys, with multiple rooms for living space that are typically constructed on expansive lots to create exclusive residential communities, allowing for each household to live independently. They are usually established, furnished, and equipped with utilities. Apartments for the larger segment of the population are generally 42.975 ㎡, 59.504 ㎡, or 82.645 ㎡ in size, but there are also luxury-size apartments with over 148.76 ㎡ in space. In most city areas, apartments use gas piped in from elsewhere for heating and cooking. The definition of an apartment in the US is the closest to a condominium. In Korea, being able to afford an apartment is a sign of accomplishment, so many young couples choose to put off getting married until they can afford one or rely on their parents to rent or buy one. Monthly rent (wolse) for apartments is less typical than Jeonse, with the refundable deposit ranging from 60 to 80 percent of the purchase price. It is also known to have highly secured parking spaces, playgrounds, gyms and fitness centers, etc. It is quite comfortable and the cost of renting this category of an apartment depends on the size and where it is located.

While "yeollip jutaek (연립 주택)" may also be called apartments, in Korean, the word "apateu" generally refers to high rise apartments, while yeollip jutaek refers to "small size apartment buildings" of under three stories. They are similar to high rise apartments in internal layout.


1.They are equipped with Elevators.

2.They come with security and surveillance features.

3.They have good maintenance and services.

4.They are usually close to all the convenient stores and is situated commonly in city areas.


They are generally too expensive and require a good amount of savings if taking a loan is not desired.

Ideal users:

These apartments are ideal for families and married couples.

Rent example
Hongik University Station vicinity 2BR, 1BATH
Deposit ₩250,000,000 / Monthly Rent ₩0 + Maintenance Fee ₩0

Villa (빌라)

Villas, also known as townhouses in South Korea, are multi-residential buildings that are 4 floors or less. These are low-rising apartments also known as townhouses in Korea. This low-rise building has lesser storeys than the high-rise building and is built in a very accommodative way. It is built to have a magnificent luxurious setting and comes with extra perks like balconies and a private compound. These places are very hard to rent or in other words they operate according to Jeonse rental system under which the tenant needs to pay a huge sum of deposit at the time of renting which is given back again after the contract period is over. The landlord, most likely, use these money for other investments. These places might be spacious but are neither furnished nor equipped with any of the appliances, and fixtures that are used in daily life. The charge for security internet also adds to the expenses. However, this type of housing is highly affordable compared to the cost of a private house.


1.They are a lot more spacious than one-rooms and Goshiwon and consist of multiple bedrooms.

2.They are comparatively cheaper than private houses and high-rise apartments.

3.Security and maintenance costs are quite less.


1. These kinds of houses are not equipped with elevators.

2. Security costs have to be paid.

Ideal users:

Families or couples.

Private Houses (단독주택)

Dandok jutaek is detached house that serve the purpose of isolated living. This style is called "dandok jutaek" in Korean, meaning "private house". Private homes are typically one or two storeyed buildings with limited yard areas. These are restricted homes created for well-heeled individuals and families. In Korea, it is not a standard practice to live separately with family in an apartment or a private building. Contrary to a public residence, where numerous people live together in different apartments in a compound, private homes are just for the owners, their families, and any invited guests. The majority of private homes are found in urban areas and international districts like Korea's capital Seoul and some other well-known cities. This is a luxurious kind of housing for those that are financially capable of affording homes. The comfort, luxury, and security are unmatched. Celebrities and business titans are the high-class residents of these apartments who can easily afford the high expense of renting the apartment in Korea.

Service Residence

In Korea, there are residents called service residents. These are a kind of residences that are built, fully furnished, decorated, and designed to accommodate visitors. Either visitors staying for a short or long period. The features and characteristics of a service residence may sound similar to that of a hotel, but the service residence is different from hotel settings because in a hotel it is required to just pay per night for the room or suite that will be occupied while the service residence is a kind of house type in Korea where rents are paid according to the duration the visitor wants to stay. A service residence is usually the best apartment to go for, if someone has to stay in Korea for few months for business deal, language course or other such works. Everything is well-equipped in a service residence. The tenant enjoys a well-furnished living room, kitchen, appliances and other amenities. The service residence usually contains everything a person would enjoy in a typical rental apartment within a short visitation period. Among other things, service residence also offers the perks of staying as a family, doing washing and dishes, and cooking if preferred. Visitors visiting Korea choose living in a service apartment over a hotel room where they pay per night and have everything done for them at an additional expense.

Korean House-Warming (집들이)


Moving into a new house has always been considered as an auspicious event in anyone’s life. People feel the most secure when at home, spending quality time with the loved ones and making beautiful memories with family. Although, the rituals associated with moving in a new house might vary across boundaries, the main intention behind it is always to celebrate the accomplishment and to wish for good fortune and prosperity for the inhabitants during their stay in the house. In Korea, as in the majority of other nations, it is customary to host a housewarming celebration for family, friends, and acquaintances after relocating into a new residence. A similar celebration is also planned when a newlywed couple enters the home after returning from their honeymoon. It essentially includes rituals and ceremonies held in advance when entering a newly built house for the first time or moving into someone else's house. However, this practice is gradually fading in the contemporary Korea due to various socio-economic circumstances.

Visitors attending jibdeuri present soap, candles, matches, and other items as presents to the owner in an effort to make their wishes come true. Such traditions, however, had a brief history, and in poor farm households, life revolved on making bread and sharing it with the neighbourhood. While Jibdeuri refers to the organising of a house warming party, Jibari is the term that refers to attending a housewarming party and visiting a newlywed couple or someone who has just moved into a new home. In other words, from the viewpoint of the home's owner, "housewarming" is actually "householding" from the standpoint of the guest visiting the house. It is also known as "deulchari (들차리)" in Ongjin-gun, Gyeonggi-do, and in the evening of the "good day" chosen by feng shui, the owner invites friends and residents of the community to a feast. Bibimbap (비빔밥) is typically served with rice, bean sprouts, and gangtu (a type of seaweed). People sing and play the hourglass-shaped drum (장구; janggu) throughout the night to rejoice. In the Seongnam area, people also have a similar celebration when building or moving into a new home. In Jeju Island and other places, traditional customs such as performing ancestral rites during housewarming, still persists.

By drafting and distributing a housewarming invitation (Hanja: 招待狀), it is vital to notify the invited guests about the housewarming by writing down fundamental information such as basic greetings, the invitation date and time, the venue, and the event's agenda. The structure and style of the invitation are chosen taking into account the type of ceremony and the preferences of the guests. It can be said that it is one of the essential customs of housewarming to prepare delicious cuisines to the guests invited to the housewarming feast, and it is clear that this tradition is linked to the culture in which a newcomer distributes different types of delicious cuisines to the neighbors’ home.

Past and Present

In the past, it was considered as an occasion that held various superstitious and religious significance, and required performing of various traditional rituals such as hosting an ancestral rite to have the blessings of the ancestors or a religious ceremony to keep away negative energy; however, in contemporary Korea, it serves as a venue for family members to visit the new home or to honour the homeowner. People still tend to hold large housewarming parties owing to the belief that the feast brings good fortune to the house and their owner.

In the recent years, “Online housewarming” or "Internet housewarming", is gaining much popularity. It is a type of housewarming that takes place online and involves posting pictures of a beautifully adorned home on social media, etc. The difference between an online housewarming and a traditional one lies in the choice and the number of people invited. In traditional form, only people with social connections are invited, however, in the online form any people using the social media is able to see the house through the uploaded posts. Also, online form does not necessarily require the viewers to visit the house physically which, in turn, allows managing the number of visitors. Additionally, unlike a conventional housewarming, this online platform allows guests to view images of interior construction sites.

Traditionally, the customary practices associated with housewarming were not only more socially oriented but also deeply rooted to and intertwined with various religious and superstitious beliefs. However, it is to be noted that the rituals and beliefs did vary among the inhabitants of the different regions of the Korean peninsula and its islands. The popular customs practiced during housewarming included “seongjumulrim (성주물림)”, one of the rituals of the Jindo samurai family, and “seongjupuri (성주풀이)”, a shamanic myth or epic song, in honour of Seongju God (Hangeul: 성주신; Hanja: 城主神), the supreme deity of the house, who builds and protects the house, and oversees every element related to the household, from furniture and appliances to peace and good fortune in the family. It is Seongju that brings cattle, grains, rice paddies and silk clothing to the home, and ensures the longevity of parents and proliferation of offspring that are pious and loyal, promising success in government service and in farming.


The home guardian God Seongju and his wife Jisin, the land goddess, are the subjects of the shamanic tale or epic ballad known as "Seongjupuri," which tells their story. When someone moves into a new house or marks the completion of a newly built house, the song is performed or recited as part of shamanic ceremonies for Seongju God. The Ansim Guk (안심국) type from the Busan region and the Hwang Woo-yang (황우양) type from the northern regions of Gyeonggi Province are the two variants of this story that have survived. Both recounts how the union of heaven and earth led to the genesis of the deity Seongju, but the details are very different. The Hwang Woo-yang type begins with the birth of Hwang Woo-yang between Cheondaemoksin of the Palace Under Heaven and Lady Jital of the Palace Underground. The baby grew up and married, and one day a sudden east wind blew, battering the Palace Under Heaven into decline, and the palace’s guardian deity Seongju disappeared as well. The person summoned to solve this problem was Hwang Woo-yang, who was living at the foot of Mount Hwangsan in the Palace Underground. Since he did not have carpentry tools, his wife had them made for him, using metal she had received from the Palace Under Heaven. Seeing him off, she instructs him never to talk back to anyone on his way to the palace. But Hwang Woo-yang falls for Sojinnang's deception and agrees to switch clothes while conversing with him. Sojinnang attempts to assume Hwang Woo-yang’s role as husband by travelling to the Palace Underground while wearing his clothes, but Hwang Woo-yang’s wife outwits him and manages to keep him out while he continues his journey to the Palace Under Heaven. In his dream, Hwang Woo-yang learns of this predicament, and after finishing his duties, he immediately leaves for home. He learns what has been going on via a note that his wife had written in blood. He then changes into a bird to hide under his wife's skirt and succeeds in capturing Sojinnang. He confines the captive in a stone box and bestows the title of Seonang (Village Guardian Deity) upon him. He confers the title of Jisin, the land goddess, to his wife after learning that she has mastered the art of raising silkworms and spinning silk, and he adopts the title of Seongju, the home guardian deity, himself.

In the Ansim Guk type of the “Seongjupuri” narrative, the husband’s name is Ansim Guk, also known as Seongjossi. When he learns that there is no house for him in the Palace Underground, he plants pine nuts for lumber. He falls into debauchery, however, which sends him into exile and upon his return to the Palace Underground, cuts down the pine trees and builds his house. Upon completion of the house, he takes on the title of Seongju.

As a song used in shamanic rites to worship the house guardian god of a new home, the "Seongjupuri" myth is primarily a story about husband and wife, the cornerstone of the family. This myth lends meaning to family fortune-wishing rituals by narrating the tale of a husband and wife who overcome obstacles to become a house guardian deity and a land goddess, respectively.

Unlike in the contemporary Korea, where only the house owner has to look after the preparation of the feast, in the olden times, the whole village used to take part in the preparation and celebration of the house warming events. In the Jincheon-gun (진천군) region of Chungcheongbuk island (충청북도), there was a culture of praying for a peaceful life in a new home through Gosa (告祀) and Antaek (安宅), and this culture still exists today.


The term "gosa (Hangeul: 고사; Hanja: 告祀)" refers to a series of ceremonies conducted to pray for peace and well-being that is performed to invoke the domestic Gods, also known as "Gasin (Hangeul: 가신; Hanja: 家神)”, such as Seongju (the house guardian deity), Teoju (the land tutelary god), Jeseok (the goddess of childbirth), Samsin (the goddess of childbearing), and Jowang (Kitchen Deity).

This ceremony, which usually takes place in the tenth lunar month, is a comprehensive worship liturgy for the several guardian deities that protect the house. In the scripts of “Dongguksesigi (Hangeul: 동국세시기; Hanja: 東國歲時記)” (A Record of the Seasonal Customs of the Eastern Kingdom) it is recorded, “In the tenth lunar month, which was the best month of the year (sangdal; Hangeul: 상달), homes held shaman rituals for the household gods, with rice cake and fruits as sacrificial food.”

Following the selection of an auspicious date for the ritual, taboos are enforced to keep impurities out. A taboo rope is stretched over the gate (geumjul; Hangeul: 금줄), and red clay (hwangto; Hangeul: 황토) is scattered out front. Family members exercised extreme caution to avoid engaging in filthy acts once the taboo rope was hung, and kept within the grounds of the house. Alcohol and rice cake served as the primary sacrificed foods during the ritual. Sirutteok (시루떡), a red bean-filled rice cake consisting of thin layers, and Baekseolgi (백설기), a thick white block without layers, both served as offerings to Samsin, the goddess of childbirth who resides in the women's quarters' inner chamber. The woman of the home begins the ritual by bowing once the sacrificial foods have been set out. It is followed by a prayer which she performs while rubbing her palms together (bison) or reciting an invocation. Only sacrifices are offered to Chilseong (the Seven Stars), Cheuksin (the Outhouse God), Madangsin (the Garden God), and Munsin (the Gate God), without any kind of ritualistic procedures.

Gosa is essential to household deity worship, a ritual that highlights the importance of these spirits and their significance. The ceremony is performed after the fall harvest as a proceeding of thanks giving to the deities for a successful crop. It is also, occasionally, performed during the first lunar month.

Antaek (ritual for domestic harmony), “Antaekgosa Gido (안택고사 기도)” (Antaek exam prayer), “Dosinje (도신제)” (prayer ceremony), and Sirugosa (시루고사) are some regional versions of the word "gosa" (rice cake steamer rite).


The ritual known as Antaek, literally meaning "peace in the house," is performed by the lady of the house in order to thank and pray to the domestic Gods (Gasin) for a bountiful crop and for peace in the home.

On the first or tenth lunar month, this ceremony is performed either once a year or every three years. It is also celebrated when a new house is constructed, when the family receives a new house guardian god (Seongju), when ill luck strikes the family, and when the current house guardian God transfers authority to a new deity. Around the nation, there are two different sorts of Antaek rituals: the first is performed by the lady of the home and involves hand-rubbing bison; the second is performed by a shaman and involves gut procedures (shamanic ritual).

The steps for doing Antaek start with choosing an auspicious day for the ritual, then impurities are removed, sacrificial food is offered, and finally the rite is performed. The lady of the family chooses dates, although occasionally a village fortune-teller is consulted to choose a date that is beyond the reach of the prying spirit son. To keep others away on the day of the rite, a taboo rope (geumjul) is placed over the gate and red clay is scattered on the sidewalk (hwangto). The making of Sirutteok (a tiered rice cake with red bean filling), wine, a sweet rice beverage, and cooked veggies come next.

The home guardian God Seongju, who is housed on the girders of the open hall, is offered adoration and sacrificed dishes as part of the ritual's opening act. Additionally, ritual tables are set up in the kitchen for Jowang, on the sauce jar terrace or in the yard for the deity Teoju, the protector of the soil, and in the inner room for Samsin, the goddess of childbirth, where the housewife offers a simplistic prayer by rubbing her palms together. The hosting family distributes the rice cake to the neighbours after the rite.

When a shaman or sorcerer is called in to officiate, the ritual is called Antaekgut (안택굿), or shamanic ritual for peace in the house. Some wealthy or religious families do this ritual on a regular basis, hiring a shaman or sorcerer they have a strong bond with. In case of other families, when the shaman's divination predicts bad luck or three tragedies (Samjae; Hangeul: 삼재, Hanja: 三災) at the beginning of the year, this ritual is hosted. In addition to this, when a new house is built, a family member is gravely ill, or when problems like accidents or failed businesses persist in the family, Antaekgut is staged.

House warming test and rituals

It is interesting to note that, the term housewarming actually refers to a test that used to take place on the first day after moving into a newly built house or when moving into someone else’s house. It is also said that according to a theory, 'housewarming' originated from this housewarming test. Originally, the test was held on the evening of the first day of relocation, but as the celebration of the house's completion became more significant than the ritualistic nature of activities, the event's contents altered. Nowadays, there are cases where a prayer of thanksgiving or worship is held in place of the traditional housewarming examination.

The explanation related to housewarming events is well presented in the scripts of Forest Economy by Hong Man-seon, a scholar of the late Joseon dynasty. The words in the script says, when the house is built, incense and alcohol, a bowl of clean water, and a willow branch or green leaf are provided. It is required to offer sacrifices and purified water to the vassals or the Jowangsin. And while offering a rite to the gods of heaven and earth, he said, “Observe the yin and yang gods of heaven and earth and the sun, moon, and stars, I hope that auspicious energy will dwell in the house. Say to the six spirits that the incense fire will not go out for ten thousand years, and rule the house forever, so that no evil can dwell in it, and that no water or fire invades it. The Moon God protects the house and repels evil spirits, and Tae-eul protects the family and helps all things go smoothly.”  While entering the new house, the fire is put on before moving in the luggage. Entering empty handed in the house is believed to bring bad fortune, hence, it is good to take grains, mirror and the vassal while stepping into the house. This makes sense why fire-related braziers, briquettes, gas cylinders, and pots are moved into the house first.

A further summarization provides insights to the list of items that should not be carried to the new house. One should refrain from carrying brooms, cold rice, vinegar bottle, millstones, knives, animals, etc. It is believed that broom symbolises a depressing magical connotation of sweeping away the prosperity of a new house. Further, cold rice represents poverty while the vinegar bottle denotes that the household will become destitute along the lines of the sourness of the vinegar. Likewise, a millstone operates to grind grains which brings into scene, a metaphorical evil meaning of grinding the prosperity of the house leading to poverty. A knife, that basically slices and cuts down things, is symbolical of the dissolution or downfall of the family. Also, it holds a practical meaning of protecting the people from weapons like knives and axes. This is because the beasts believe that the good God of the house sees their ugly faces and runs away. Like a millstone, it is brought with a choice. It is said that a wealthy family held a sacramental ceremony when the house is built, and the year that celebrates the first year of the house is referred to as a "house birthday," much like a person's first birthday celebration.

Housewarming Gifts

When invited to a housewarming party, the most common and obvious gift that comes to mind is home-decor items like photo-frames, paintings, ceramics or bed-sheets. However, in Korea, it is a culture to present sanitary items such as toiletries, towels and shampoo, as gift, when attending a housewarming party. The most popular gifts include toilet papers and laundry detergent which signifies long term cleanliness in the new home. Additionally, it implies that household chores can be completed smoothly, like the roll of toilet papers (화장지), or profitably, like a bubble of detergent (세제). The tradition of purchasing toilet papers or detergents as gifts dates back to the time when South Korea was an underdeveloped nation and not everyone could afford to buy sanitary items as these were deemed to be expensive. Washing powders also hold an alternate meaning in Korean culture. The detergent symbolizes a home that is physically and spiritually pure. Money and prosperity are represented by the sparkling, spherical bubbles. Receiving laundry detergent as a housewarming present expresses the desire of the giver that the recipients have a clean and prosperous home. Another common variation of a laundry detergent is a dish washing soap. Even from a practical perspective, items like soap, detergent, towel, etc. are vital items that can be used in day-to-day life and will last long without rotting or expiring upon keeping unused for a long time.

Apart from sanitary products, items like air purifiers and potted plants (화분) serve as excellent gifts for such an occasion as they help in keeping the air fresh. Potted plants can bring some colour and life into a new house, particularly if they have fragrant blossoms. Green plants are viewed as a symbol of life, health, and prosperity in Korean culture. The Window-leaf plant and the Snake plant are two popular traditional plants to give as gifts. Large green fronds with oblong-shaped openings separate the leaves of the Window-leaf plant. This plant requires low care because of its excellent tolerance to dry and warm conditions. Additionally, this plant is believed to bring luck in businesses and is, therefore, common to be found in Korean company openings and important meetings. The Snake plant, on the other hand, has long, pointed leaves with a variety of green hues. This plant thrives in arid, shaded environments.

Koreans tend to give candles and matches as gifts on this auspicious day. The fire is usually the key element of the traditional homes everywhere around the world and the hearth is at its center. In the traditional Korean households, the fire was transferred as a part of a particular ritual, and its presence was required to satisfy and gratify the spirits. It is likely that it was also used to honour Jowangsin, the goddess of the hearth and fire. Candles and matches are still gifted today as part of this ancient ritual, as they are meant to "light up" the house with luck and prosperity.

Owing to the drinking culture of South Korea, gifting alcoholic drinks and beverages such as a bottle of wine or whiskey during a housewarming feast is not a bad option as well. In many cases, it helps in strengthening the bonds and relationships between the visitors and the house owner. Above all, it is a gift for the people who live in the house holding the housewarming party, so it is crucial to choose the gifts in consideration of the circumstances of the house owner and their family.

Rental System

Finding a house in South Korea can be a really daunting process as the housing market and the rental system in Korea is quite different than that in the other parts of the world. Those on their venture to finding a suitable accommodation require adequate research ability and judgement to choose the type of property that fits their needs as well as provides the feeling of a safety as afterall our homes are our safe spaces.[1] Rapid increase in demand of properties despite a global pandemic has resulted in a 40% increase in house prices in Seoul, compared to last two years. So rental housing is becoming an affordable choice for individuals.[1]

In Korea, the pricing mechanism is quite different than that in other parts of the world. Here rental system is divided into two main categories Jeonse (전세) and Wolsae (월세) and another short-term rental system Dangi Imdae (단기임대). [1]

 Jeonse (전세)

 Jeonse (Hangeul: 전세; Hanja: 傳貰) is an intermediary scheme which is in between monthly rent (Wolsae) and ownership (Jaga). [2] It is also known as “key money deposit” or “key money”, which is a type of lease where a tenant has to make a lump-sum deposit on a rental property instead of paying monthly rent. [2]This allows the tenant to live rent free until the end of lease term (usually 2 years). 10% of the Jeonse is paid as deposit and the rest should be paid upon moving in[3]. The landlord then uses this deposit to re-invest and keep all of the interest earned. Once the lease term is over, the entire deposit is then returned to the tenant. The landlord can treat the deposit as a 0% interest rate loan to invest into other capital, which made Jeonse especially desirable in the 20th century when interest rates were very high. This is quite a common system in South Korea for both consumers and landlords, as it also gives chance to combine a lower Jeonse with a lower monthly rent. [2][3]

Although, the landlord is able to invest the key money deposit, there is a condition that it must be returned at the end of lease period. there are certain rules and regulations that the tenant must abide by during their stay. For instance, during the tenancy, the tenant is responsible for keeping the property in good condition and must obtain the landlord's consent before making any construction-related changes. [4] Given that some tenants have had trouble getting their key deposits back, it is crucial to do a comprehensive research and validate all pertinent information regarding the landlord and the property. To protect oneself and avoid any fraud it is best to register the deposit with the local government office (구청) located nearest to the concerned property. There is also an option of doing credit checks on the landlord and the property.[1] The tenant’s deposit is protected by having a lien issued against the property for the amount given. [3]

Even nevertheless, the administration has taken a number of steps to adjust policies in order to preserve Jeonse since real estate values have increased significantly in recent years. The government has intentions to have a stable housing lease market by delivering additional housing properties across the country in an effort to lower prices, even though for tenants the Jeonse system is gradually losing favor due to the low interest rate on housing and the narrow margins on other investments. [1][2]

Weolse (월세)

Another main type of rental system in Korea which is becoming popular these days, is Wolsae (월세). Wolsae is a similar type of rental system that prevails in Western housing markets. Wolsae refers to a system where the tenant pays a small deposit after 1-to-2-years rental contract and pays a monthly usage fee or the monthly rent. The deposit is usually 10 to 20 times the monthly rent.[1] [4]

10% of the key money is deposited as the contract fee and remainder of the key money is paid after moving in. But if a tenant terminates the bond before the contract term is over, then the tenant will not be able to get their deposit refund. However, if the landlord terminates the bond midway, then they have to compensate the tenant with double the deposit amount.[4]

Though, normally the rule is to return the full deposit after the contract is terminated. If there are certain factors like rent, utilities, etc., the deposit can be returned excluding these arrears.[4] Usually, utility and maintenance fees are paid separately.[4] Next, the brokerage fees usually vary in accordance with the type, size and price of house. The real estate agencies are capable of conversing in foreign languages (mainly English, Chinese, Japanese) as well and the list can be checked from SMG real estate information portal ([5]


Usually, the average deposits for Wolsae starts at 5,000,000 KRW and can go up to 40,000,000 KRW; as higher initial key money demands a lower monthly rent; for example, The average key-money amount in Seoul is 5,000,000 Won for a studio accommodation, and monthly payments can start from 400,000 won. [5] However recent trends show that Wolsae is slowly beginning to lose popularity as landlords opt for a more reliable source of cash flow in a monthly basis, so they lower the key deposit amounts. Since this entire key contract or key money is held directly with the lessor instead of any housing authority, there is always some risks behind such matters. This is why it is always important to investigate and run background checks on the property as well as the property owner.[1][5]

Dangi Imdae (단기임대)

The third type of rental system is the Dangi Imdae (단기임대), which is a short-term in contract nature. This rental system does not require any significant key money prior to moving in. However, this system is not very well-liked among people. Being a short-term rent, sometimes there is a key money or initial deposit that is equivalent to 1 month rent. Due to the unstable system and extremely little profit for the landlord, short-term rentals are not particularly common in Korea. [5]

Utilities and Maintenance


After renting any apartment or villa, the next thing to keep in mind is the building maintenance fee (관리비). This is a monthly fee which covers utilities such as internet, elevator maintenance, garbage disposal and building security guards. For villas it is a different case, there might be some fee which is decided along with the neighbors and co-residents to contribute to cover the cost of certain services like washing the villa exterior during the months in spring. Sometimes there is no maintenance fee at all, and it should be written “maintenance fee absent (관리비 없음)” in the rental contract. [1][5]

Sometimes the utility costs are to be paid in addition to the monthly rent. However, those charges are considered from the monthly rent. If the utility fees are included in the maintenance fee, the contract should have “maintenance fee included (관리비포함내역)” written on it. For example, if water and internet is mentioned right next to 관리비포함내역, then no separate fee for water and internet will be charged, but other utilities like gas, electricity has to be paid.

Building maintenance fees cost ranges from 50,000 KRW -110,000 KRW per month. This amount is variable as the utility and maintenance fees depend on the housing type. Each housing type has a different fee rate calculated per pyeong (평). Pyeong is a traditional method of measurement which the Koreans use to calculate the size of the houses. Pyeong is about 3.3 square meters or 3.5 feet approximately. One can find this measurement method is still in use when visiting the local real estate agent (부동산).[1][5]

Utility fees including water, gas, electricity, is calculated by a specific formula. A fixed charge (depends on the region, city, and the type of housing) + a consumption tariff + 10% VAT + a very small percentage of additional fees (about 0.04%, depends on the region, city, and the type of housing) = amount for payment. [5]

Housing Policies in Korea

Real estate and housing prices are a major political issue that results into dominating debates about the South Korean government.[7] To respond to market conditions in a preventative and flexible manner and to rein in a speculative demand in overheated areas while managing supply to an appropriate level in contracted areas and restore the housing market driven towards the actual demand of the citizens; keeping all these factors in check the government has introduced few policies in lieu of the housing and rental market.[8]

Housing Market Stability

As the housing market expands, the industry’s influence also expands and this becomes one of the most important aspects for the economy. Thus the housing policies has to two major goals- ensuring housing stability and maintaining the economy.[9] To control the speculative demand policies are designed which modify reconstruction regulations by increasing safety diagnosis of apartments that fall under the reconstructable category and recapturing surplus rebuilding gains. Another strategy is to introduce a debt service ratio or a stricter financial regulation for mortgage loans and applying heavier capital gains tax to multiple homeowners.[8]

Real demand centric

Imposing a stronger punishment for illegal practices to distort the housing market such as price rigging or fraudulent transactions or money laundering by making contracts and then intentionally cancelling them, raising asking prices as well as real transaction prices. Reducing the transaction period for reporting and modifying the subscription system to give non-homeowners more room for being drawn. Another effect of this policy is to strengthen restriction on the resale of pre-sale rights for apartments to which a pre-sale price cap is applied.

Contracted areas and Monitoring

This focuses on bringing down the housing supply to an appropriate level by managing the unsold pre-sale properties in provincial areas and adjusting LH's supply of sites for construction, and controlling the start of building public pre-sale houses. Along with this enforcing tenant protection by providing guarantee for the return of rental deposit and expanding the priority of claim for small-sum deposit. Monitoring of speculation prone areas or slumped areas also to be strengthened to assure that a rapid response to abnormal issues and thus preventing low-income households from being damaged.

The government also has plans to secure a stable housing facility for those coming from low-income households with a proper approach focusing on life stages and income levels, basically by increasing public rental housing to ensure long term residence.

  • For citizens belonging to low-income households, the authorities plan to provide 1.04mn units of public housing by 2022, which if broken down further comes to 695,000 units for public rental housing, 200,000 units for public supply private rental housing, and 150,000 units for public pre-sale housing. This strategy expands housing benefits with the eradication of family support obligation rule in October 2018.
  • For newlyweds, the plan is to provide 50,000 units of public rental housing and 100,000 units of pre-sale housing with proximity to childcare centers. The focus of this scheme is to increase number of recipients and ratio of pre-sale housing for newlyweds. By introducing Jeonse or mortgage loans with comparatively lower rates of interest, it can help to reduce the debt that acts as a burden for newlyweds seeking to buying a house or rental.
  • For young adults, the government will Supply 270,000 units of rental housing in various types such as Happy Housing, share houses, SOHO clusters, dormitory-style residence, etc. In this way individuals who do not own a house and have a low income can fund for residence through a housing subscription account. Lowering the minimum age limit for Jeonse loans from 25 to 19 and slightly raising the monthly rent capital for loan from KRW300,000 to KRW400,000.
  • For Elderly people, provision of 50,000 units of rental housing that connects barrier-free design i.e., no obstruction in doorways, sinks with adjustable heights etc. This can help aged people with free movement thus reducing chances of accidents occurring within homes. It is also planned to install motion sensors for senior citizens living alone to prevent lonely deaths. The government promises to support elderlies by covering their cost of living through facilitating pension schemes with the rents collected from lending out their houses for sale to others.

Housing in South Korea might seem a little too complex at first for people but with some insights into the foundations of the systems and types of houses, their measuring methodologies this issue can be overcome. The housing sector in South Korea is a beaming field these days, with its rapid growth and extensive infrastructural developments, introduction of new and improved policies for the benefits of the citizens, the government agencies and institutions play a pivotal role in the process. With its unique economic, social and cultural aspects, South Korea can be taken as a model of reference for inspiration on development and maintenance.


























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Tithi Ghosh
23 Oct 2022
Views 13

Topic : Seoljanggunori (설장구놀이)

Team Members : Srotoswini, Soumi, Tithi (WB4)

Introduction : For our second wikipedia topic of this semester we wrote about Seoljanggunori, a form of individual nori (놀이) or a performance play which is performed by the janggu (장구) or percussion performers of the pungmul (풍물) troupe standing in the center of an open-air performance space.

Link : Seoljanggunori (설장구놀이) wikipedia

22 Oct 2022
Views 12

The hanbok (কোরিয়ান: πττ▫;  হানজা: ππ;  RR: hanbok; lit।  কোরিয়ান পোশাক;) এটি ঐতিহ্যবাহী কোরিয়ান কাপড় যা বিশ্বজুড়ে কোরিয়ানদের দ্বারা পরিধান করা হয়েছে.

কোরিয়ানদের পোষাকের প্রাচীনতম ঐতিহাসিক রেকর্ডটি  কোরীয় উপদ্বীপে ছড়িয়ে থাকা লৌহ যুগের দেশগুলি থেকে সামগুকি (তিনটি দেশের রেকর্ড) এবং ভায়েও, গোকুরিও এবং সামহানের মতো মাঞ্চুরিয়া থেকে অধ্যায়টিতে বিস্তারিতভাবে বর্ণনা করা হয়েছে। এতে লেখা আছে, "Buyeo এর লোকেরা সাদা রঙকে পবিত্র বলে মনে করে, সাদা রঙকে লালন করে, তারা সাদা পোশাক পরেছিল, ডোপো (গাউন) এবং সোমাই (হাতা) খুব প্রশস্ত। অন্ত্যেষ্টিক্রিয়ায় সাদা শণ পরিধান করা হয়। তারা ইয়ং-গো নামে আকাশে একটি স্বর্গীয় আচার তৈরি করে, যদি আমরা চন্দ্র ক্যালেন্ডারের কথা উল্লেখ করি তবে এটি ডিসেম্বর। যখন তারা বিদেশে যায়, পুরু ফ্যাব্রিক, পাঁচটি রঙিন থ্রেড এমব্রয়ডারি সিল্ক সহ পরিধান করা হয়, নীল উল পরা উপভোগ করুন। বড় লোকেরা শিয়াল, র ্যাকুন, কালো এবং সাদা মার্টেন কোট পরে, টুপিতে সোনা এবং রৌপ্য সজ্জিত করে", "'মহানে, তারা ইতিমধ্যে সিল্ক তৈরি করতে জানে, সুতি এবং শণ পরা উপভোগ করে। তারা স্ফটিক জপমালা অ্যাক্সেসযোগ্যদের লালন করে। তারা সোনা, বিলাসিতা, Geum (রঙ্গিন সূচিকর্ম সিল্ক), গাই ফ্যাব্রিক (নীল পাখি দিয়ে তৈরি)" পছন্দ করে না।", "গোকুরিয়ার লোকেরা গিউম (রঙ্গিন, সূচিকর্মযুক্ত, প্যাটার্ন সজ্জিত সিল্ক), সোনা এবং রৌপ্য দিয়ে সজ্জিত পরিধান করে। গোগুরিয়া অভ্যন্তরের লোকদের পুরুষ ও মহিলা উভয়ই বৃত্তাকার কলার পরেছেন, ফুলের আকৃতির রৌপ্য আনুষাঙ্গিক দিয়ে সজ্জিত।

হানবোকের চাক্ষুষ চিত্রগুলি কোরিয়া যুগের তিনটি রাজ্যে (57 খ্রিস্টপূর্বাব্দ থেকে 668 খ্রিস্টাব্দ)  ফিরে পাওয়া যেতে পারে  যা বর্তমানে কোরিয়া এবং মাঞ্চুরিয়ার প্রোটো-কোরিয়ানীয় জনগণের মধ্যে শিকড় রয়েছে। এটি  খ্রিস্টীয় চতুর্থ থেকে ষষ্ঠ শতাব্দী পর্যন্ত একই সময়ের গগুরিও সমাধির ম্যুরালের শিল্পকলাতেও পাওয়া যায়। [১] প্রাচীন হানবোকের মধ্যে একটি জিওগোরি (টপ), বাজি (প্যান্ট), চিমা (স্কার্ট) এবং পো (কোট) ছিল। হানবোকের মৌলিক কাঠামোটি  চলাচলের স্বাচ্ছন্দ্যকে সহজতর করার জন্য ডিজাইন করা হয়েছিল এবং মু-আইসমের অনেক মোটিফকে সংহত করা হয়েছিল। [২] হানবোকের এই মৌলিক কাঠামোগত বৈশিষ্ট্যগুলি  আজ পর্যন্ত তুলনামূলকভাবে অপরিবর্তিত রয়েছে। যাইহোক, বর্তমান দিনের হানবোক, যা আজকাল পরিধান করা হয়, জোসেওন রাজবংশে পরিধান  করা হানবোকের পরে প্যাটার্ন করা হয়,[২] বিশেষ করে আভিজাত্য এবং রাজকীয়তা দ্বারা পরিধান করা হয়। [৩]: ১০৪[৪]

আজকাল, সমসাময়িক কোরিয়ানরা  আনুষ্ঠানিক বা আধা-আনুষ্ঠানিক অনুষ্ঠান এবং বিবাহ, উত্সব, উদযাপন এবং অনুষ্ঠানের মতো অনুষ্ঠানের জন্য হানবোক পরিধান করে। ১৯৯৬ সালে দক্ষিণ কোরিয়ার সংস্কৃতি, ক্রীড়া ও পর্যটন মন্ত্রণালয় দক্ষিণ কোরিয়ার নাগরিকদের হানবোক পরতে উৎসাহিত করার জন্য  "হানবোক দিবস" প্রতিষ্ঠা করে। [৫] আজকের হানবোক গঠন জোসেওন যুগের।

আধুনিক ব্যবহার

Hanbok আন্তর্জাতিক haute couture বৈশিষ্ট্যযুক্ত হয়েছে; ক্যাটওয়াকে, 2015 সালে, যখন কার্ল লেগারফিল্ড চ্যানেলের জন্য কোরিয়ান মডেলদের পোষাক পরেছিলেন, এবং ফিল ওহ দ্বারা ফটোগ্রাফিতে প্যারিস ফ্যাশন সপ্তাহের সময়। [১১২] এটি ব্রিটনি স্পিয়ার্স এবং জেসিকা আলবার মতো আন্তর্জাতিক সেলিব্রিটিরা এবং টেনিস খেলোয়াড় ভেনাস উইলিয়ামস এবং ফুটবল খেলোয়াড় হিনস ওয়ার্ডের মতো ক্রীড়াবিদদের  দ্বারাও পরিধান করা হয়েছে। [113]

হানবোক এশিয়ান-আমেরিকান সেলিব্রিটিদের মধ্যে জনপ্রিয়, যেমন লিসা লিং এবং মিস এশিয়া ২০১৪, এরিকো লি কাটাইয়ামা। [১১৪] এটি রেড কার্পেটেও উপস্থিত হয়েছে, এবং  এসএজি অ্যাওয়ার্ডসে সান্ড্রা ওহ দ্বারা পরিধান করা হয়েছিল, এবং সান্ড্রা ওহের মা যিনি ২০১৮ সালে এমি পুরষ্কারে একটি হ্যানবোক পরার জন্য ফ্যাশন ইতিহাস তৈরি করেছিলেন

দক্ষিণ কোরিয়া

যদিও হানবোক একটি ঐতিহ্যবাহী পোশাক, এটি আধুনিক ফ্যাশনে পুনরায় জনপ্রিয় হয়েছে। [১১৬] যেহেতু হানবোক আধুনিকীকরণ অব্যাহত রেখেছে, তাই পুনরায় ডিজাইনের বিষয়ে মতামত বিভক্ত হয়ে পড়েছে। [117]

দক্ষিণ কোরিয়ার সরকার ফ্যাশন ডিজাইনারদের পৃষ্ঠপোষকতা করে হানবোকের প্রতি আগ্রহের পুনরুত্থানকে সমর্থন করেছে। [১১৮] ঘরোয়াভাবে, হানবোক রাস্তার ফ্যাশন এবং মিউজিক ভিডিওগুলিতে ট্রেন্ডি হয়ে উঠেছে। এটি ব্ল্যাকপিঙ্ক এবং বিটিএসের মতো বিশিষ্ট কে-পপ শিল্পীদের  দ্বারা পরিধান করা হয়েছে, বিশেষ করে "আপনি কীভাবে এটি পছন্দ করেন" এবং "আইডল" এর জন্য তাদের সঙ্গীত ভিডিওগুলিতে। [১১৯][১২০]

সিউলে, হানবোক পরিহিত একজন পর্যটক পাঁচটি গ্র্যান্ড প্যালেস (চ্যাংদেওকগুং, চ্যাংগিয়ংগুং, দেওকসুগুং, গিয়ংবোগং এবং গিয়ংহুইগুং) বিনামূল্যে পরিদর্শন করে।

উত্তর কোরিয়া

হানবোক বর্তমান উত্তর কোরিয়াতেও পরিধান করা হয়  যেখানে এটি জোসেওন-ওট (কোরিয়ান: π)  নামেও পরিচিত; হানজা:  π;  RR: Joseon-ot)। [১২১] জোসেওন-ওট এইভাবে কোরিয়ান নৃগোষ্ঠীর পরিচয় তুলে ধরেছে এবং কিম জং-উনের শাসনামলে আরও সক্রিয়ভাবে প্রচারিত হয়েছে। [১২১] জোসেওন-ওটি বর্তমানে সাধারণত বিশেষ অনুষ্ঠানের সময় পরিধান করা হয়, যেমন বিবাহ,[১২২]: ৪৯  এবং যখন উত্তর কোরিয়ানরা তাদের পিতামাতার ৬০ তম, ৭০ তম এবং ৮০ তম জন্মদিন উদযাপন করে। [১২১] এটিও বাধ্যতামূলক করা হয় যে, কিম জং-ইলের জন্মদিন (১৬ ফেব্রুয়ারি), আন্তর্জাতিক নারী দিবস (৮ মার্চ), কিম ইল-সুংয়ের জন্মদিন (১৫ এপ্রিল), প্রতিষ্ঠা দিবস (৯ সেপ্টেম্বর) এর মতো জাতীয় অনুষ্ঠানে অংশ নেওয়ার সময়  মহিলারা জোসেওন-ওটি পরেন। [১২২]: ৭৮  টি সাদা রঙের হানবক প্রায়শই ব্যবহার করা হয় কারণ সাদা রঙটি ঐতিহ্যগতভাবে কোরিয়ান জনগণ দ্বারা বিশুদ্ধ আত্মার প্রতীক হিসাবে পছন্দ করা হয়েছে। [121]


1.The Dreams of the Living and the Hopes of the Dead-Goguryeo Tomb Murals, ২০০৭, Ho-Tae Jeon, Seoul National University Press উদ্ধৃতি টেমপ্লেট ইংরেজি প্যারামিটার ব্যবহার করেছে (link)

2.অ্যান ওয়াগনার, সারাহ মারুসেক। চাম, সুইজারল্যান্ড: স্প্রিংগার। 2021. পৃষ্ঠা 125। আইএসবিএন 978-3-030-32865-8।

3.Heeoe Hongbowsn (২০০৯ সংস্করণ)। সিওল, কোরিয়া: কোরিয়ান সংস্কৃতি ও তথ্য পরিষেবা। 2009. আইএসবিএন 978-89-7375-153-2।  ওসিএলসি 680802927।

4.Gwak, Sung Youn Sonya (২০০৬)। Be(com) in the United States: Exploring Ethnic Identity Formation through Cultural Practices (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। ক্যামব্রিয়া প্রেস।  আইএসবিএন 9781621969723।

5.Cookie News (১৫ সেপ্টেম্বর ২০১৪)।  "হানবোক দিবসটি সারা দেশের পাঁচটি শহরে উন্মোচিত  হয়।  কুকি নিউজ (কোরিয়ান ভাষায়)। সংগৃহীত ১১ মার্চ ২০২২।

112."The Story Behind Seoul's Latest Street Style Staple"। ভোগ। সংগৃহীত ১৭ অক্টোবর ২০১৮।

113. "8 আমেরিকান সেলিব্রিটিরা হানবোক পরা"। SweetandtastyTV। সংগৃহীত ১৭ অক্টোবর ২০১৮।

114."KIM MeHee hanbok couture"। KIM MeHee hanbok couture।

115."Sandra Oh's mother makes emmys history by wearing traditionalতিহ্যবাহী Korean hanbok to awards"। সংগৃহীত ১৭ অক্টোবর ২০১৮।

116. কিম, মনিকা।  "The Story Behind Seoul's Latest Street Style Staple"। ভোগ।

117."মেয়েরা এখন স্কার্টের সাথে হ্যানবোক পরেছে এবং কোরিয়ানরা নিশ্চিত নয় যে তারা এটি সম্পর্কে কেমন অনুভব করে। কোরিয়াবু । ৯ অক্টোবর ২০১৭। সংগৃহীত ১৭ অক্টোবর ২০১৮।

118. "ডিজাইনাররা হানবোক শৈলীতে একটি আধুনিক টুইস্ট যোগ করে: সরকার কোরিয়া এর ঐতিহ্যগত পোশাকের বহুমুখিতা বিশ্বকে দেখাতে আগ্রহী"। Korea JoongAng Daily (কোরিয়ান ভাষায়)। সংগৃহীত ১৭ অক্টোবর ২০১৮।

119. "11 বার বিটিএস ঐতিহ্যবাহী কোরিয়ান পোশাককে নাড়িয়ে দিয়েছে"। এসবিএস পপএশিয়া। সংগৃহীত ১৭ অক্টোবর ২০১৮।

120."Here's Everything You Need to Know About BlackPINK's Korean Hanbok outfits in "How You Like That" MV.[স্থায়ীভাবে অকার্যকর সংযোগ] ২৬ জুন ২০২০।

121."হানবোক ইন এন. কোরিয়া"।। সংগৃহীত ২১ আগস্ট ২০২২।

122.রহস্যময় পিয়ংইয়ং: প্রসাধনী, সৌন্দর্য সংস্কৃতি এবং উত্তর কোরিয়া। নাম সুং-উক, চ্যা সু-ল্যান, লি গা-ইয়ং (সম্পাদক)। স্প্রিঙ্গার সিঙ্গাপুর। 2020. আইএসবিএন 9789811577031।

Shirsha Singh
21 Oct 2022
Views 6

1. Topic: Yut (यूट)

2. Writer: WBT3 (Hindi Sub Team 2: Shirsha, Suparna, Ritoja, Vaishali)

3. Short Explanation: We created a Wikipedia page on 'Yut' in Hindi. Yut Nori, also known as Yunnori, Nyout, and Yoot, is a traditional board game played in Korea, especially during Korean New Year. The game is also called cheok-sa or sa-hee. The combining-form -nori means 'game'.

4. Link: Yut (यूट)

Shirsha Singh
21 Oct 2022
Views 8

1. Topic: Ministry of Environment (South Korea) (पर्यावरण मंत्रालय (दक्षिण कोरिया)

2. Writer: WBT3 (Hindi Team 2: Suparna, Shirsha, Ritoja, Vaishali)

3. Short Explanation: We created a Wikipedia page on the 'Ministry of Environment (South Korea)' in Hindi. The Ministry of Environment is the South Korean branch of government charged with environmental protection. In addition to enforcing regulations and sponsoring ecological research, the Ministry manages the national parks of South Korea. Its headquarters is in Sejong City.

4. Link: Ministry of Environment (South Korea) (पर्यावरण मंत्रालय (दक्षिण कोरिया)

Shirsha Singh
21 Oct 2022
Views 5

1. Topic: Korean Demilitarized Zone (कोरियाई विसैन्यीकृत क्षेत्र)

2. Writer: WBT3 (Hindi Sub Team 1: Sanskriti, Bharti, Nikhil, Nisha)

3. Short Explanation: We created a Wikipedia page on 'Korean Demilitarized Zone' in Hindi.  The Korean Demilitarized Zone is a strip of land running across the Korean Peninsula near the 38th parallel north. The demilitarized zone (DMZ) is a border barrier that divides the peninsula roughly in half. It was established to serve as a buffer zone between the countries of North Korea and South Korea under the provisions of the Korean Armistice Agreement in 1953, an agreement between North Korea, China, and the United Nations Command.

4. Link: Korean Demilitarized Zone (कोरियाई विसैन्यीकृत क्षेत्र)

Shirsha Singh
21 Oct 2022
Views 3

1. Topic: Aging of South Korea (दक्षिण कोरिया में बुढ़ापा)

2. Writer: WBT3 (Hindi Sub Team 1: Nikhil, Nisha, Sanskriti, Bharti)

3. Short Explanation: We created a Wikipedia page on 'Aging of South Korea' in Hindi. In South Korea, aging refers to an increase in the proportion of senior citizens to the total population. The term "senior citizens" include those aged 65 or older. According to Article 3 no.1 of the Framework Act on Low Birthrate of an Aging Society, the term "aging population" refers to the increasing proportion of elderly people in the entire population.

4. Link: Aging of South Korea (दक्षिण कोरिया में बुढ़ापा)