SAYUL_INDIA
Tithi Ghosh
26 Sep 2022
Views 3

Topic : The Royal Silk Flower (Gungjung Chaehwa)

Team Members : Srotoswini, Soumi, Tithi (WB4)

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Introduction: This semester our first wikipedia topic is “궁중채화 (Gungjung Chaehwa)” or “the royal silk flower”. Gungjung Chaehwa is the art of making flowers with silk fabric. These artificial flowers were preserved in the royal court of Joseon for the decoration or celebration purpose of various royal and state events i.e. banquets and ceremonial rituals. This art of flower making contains various silk flowers which are the symbols of peace, longevity, or health.

link - The Royal Silk Flower

Adrija Biswas
20 Sep 2022
Views 7

কোরিয়ান রন্ধনপ্রণালী শত শত বছর ধরে সামাজিক ও রাজনৈতিক পরিবর্তনের মধ্য দিয়ে বিকশিত হয়েছে। কোরিয়া এবং দক্ষিণ মাঞ্চুরিয়াতে প্রাচীন কৃষি ও যাযাবর ঐতিহ্য  থেকে উদ্ভূত, কোরিয়ান রন্ধনপ্রণালী প্রাকৃতিক পরিবেশ এবং বিভিন্ন সাংস্কৃতিক প্রবণতার একটি জটিল মিথস্ক্রিয়া প্রতিফলিত করে। [১][২]

কোরিয়ান রন্ধনপ্রণালী মূলত ভাত, শাকসবজি, সামুদ্রিক খাবার এবং (কমপক্ষে দক্ষিণ কোরিয়ায়) মাংসের উপর ভিত্তি করে তৈরি। ডেইরি মূলত ঐতিহ্যগত কোরিয়ান খাদ্য থেকে অনুপস্থিত। [৩] ঐতিহ্যবাহী কোরিয়ান খাবারের নামকরণ করা হয় সাইড ডিশ (বাঞ্চন) এর  সংখ্যার জন্য যা বাষ্প-রান্না করা শর্ট-গ্রেইন চালের সাথে থাকে।  কিমচি প্রায় প্রতিটি খাবারেই পরিবেশন করা হয়। সাধারণত ব্যবহৃত উপাদানগুলির মধ্যে রয়েছে তিলের তেল, ডোনজাং (ফার্মেন্টেড বিন পেস্ট), সয়া সস, লবণ, রসুন, আদা, গোচুগারু (মরিচের ফ্লেক্স), গোচুজাং (ফার্মেন্টেড লাল মরিচ পেস্ট) এবং নাপা বাঁধাকপি।

উপাদান এবং থালাগুলি প্রদেশ অনুসারে পরিবর্তিত হয়। অনেক আঞ্চলিক[৪] খাবার জাতীয় হয়ে উঠেছে, এবং যে খাবারগুলি একসময় আঞ্চলিক ছিল তা সারা দেশে বিভিন্ন বৈচিত্র্যে ছড়িয়ে পড়েছে।  কোরিয়ান রাজকীয় আদালতের রন্ধনপ্রণালী একসময় রাজকীয় পরিবারের জন্য সমস্ত অনন্য আঞ্চলিক বিশেষত্বকে একত্রিত করেছিল। কোরিয়ান সাংস্কৃতিক শিষ্টাচার দ্বারা খাদ্য নিয়ন্ত্রিত হয়।


ইতিহাস

প্রাক-ঐতিহাসিক

জেউলমুন মৃৎশিল্প যুগে (প্রায় ৮০০০ থেকে ১৫০০ খ্রিষ্টপূর্বাব্দ), শিকারী-সংগ্রাহক সমাজগুলি মাছ ধরা ও শিকারে জড়িত ছিল এবং পরবর্তী পর্যায়ে প্রারম্ভিক কৃষিতে জড়িত ছিল। [১] মুমুন মৃৎশিল্প যুগের (১৫০০ খ্রিষ্টপূর্বাব্দ) শুরু থেকে, মাঞ্চুরিয়ার লিয়াও নদী অববাহিকার নতুন অভিবাসী গোষ্ঠীর সাথে কৃষি ঐতিহ্য বিকশিত হতে শুরু   করে। মুমুন যুগে, লোকেরা বাজরা, বার্লি, গম, শিম এবং চাল চাষ করত এবং শিকার ও মাছ ধরতে থাকে। প্রত্নতাত্ত্বিক অবশিষ্টাংশ এই সময়ের মধ্যে fermented মটরশুটি উন্নয়ন নির্দেশ করে, এবং উত্তরে যাযাবর সংস্কৃতির সাথে সাংস্কৃতিক যোগাযোগ প্রাণীদের গৃহপালিত করার সুবিধা প্রদান করে।

তিন রাজ্যের সময়কাল

তিনটি রাজ্যের সময়কাল (৫৭ খ্রিষ্টপূর্বাব্দ - ৬৬৮ খ্রিস্টপূর্বাব্দ) ছিল দ্রুত সাংস্কৃতিক বিবর্তনের একটি। গগুরিও রাজ্য  (৩৭ খ্রিষ্টপূর্বাব্দ - ৬৬৮ খ্রিস্টপূর্বাব্দ) আধুনিক দিনের মাঞ্চুরিয়ার বেশিরভাগ বরাবর উপদ্বীপের উত্তর অংশে অবস্থিত ছিল। দ্বিতীয় রাজ্য, বেকজে (১৮ খ্রিষ্টপূর্বাব্দ - ৬৬০ খ্রিস্টপূর্বাব্দ), উপদ্বীপের দক্ষিণ-পশ্চিম অংশে ছিল, এবং তৃতীয়, সিলা (৫৭ খ্রিস্টপূর্বাব্দ - ৯৩৫ খ্রিস্টপূর্বাব্দ), উপদ্বীপের দক্ষিণ-পূর্ব অংশে অবস্থিত ছিল। প্রতিটি অঞ্চলের নিজস্ব সাংস্কৃতিক অনুশীলন এবং খাবারের একটি নির্দিষ্ট সেট ছিল। উদাহরণস্বরূপ, বেকজে ঠান্ডা খাবার এবং কিমচির মতো ফার্মেন্টেড খাবারের জন্য পরিচিত ছিলেন।  খ্রিস্টীয় চতুর্থ শতাব্দীতে চীনের সাথে সাংস্কৃতিক আদান-প্রদানের মাধ্যমে বৌদ্ধধর্ম এবং কনফুসিয়াসের বিস্তার কোরিয়ার স্বতন্ত্র সংস্কৃতিকে পরিবর্তন করতে শুরু করে। [৭]

GORYEO সময়কাল

পরবর্তী গোরিও যুগে মঙ্গোলরা ত্রয়োদশ শতাব্দীতে গোরিও আক্রমণ করে। কোরিয়ায় আজ পাওয়া কিছু ঐতিহ্যবাহী খাবারের উৎপত্তি এই সময়ের মধ্যে। ডাম্পলিং ডিশ, মান্ডু, গ্রিলড মাংসের থালা, নুডল ডিশ, এবং কালো মরিচের মতো সিজনিংগুলির ব্যবহার, এই সময়ের মধ্যে তাদের শিকড় রয়েছে। [৮]

জোসন সময়কাল

এই সময়ের মধ্যে কৃষি উদ্ভাবনউল্লেখযোগ্য এবং ব্যাপক ছিল, যেমন 15 শতকের সময় বৃষ্টির গেজ আবিষ্কার। ১৪২৯ সালের মধ্যে, সরকার কৃষি ও কৃষি কৌশলের উপর বই প্রকাশ করতে শুরু করে, যার মধ্যে নোংসা জিকসিওল (আক্ষরিক অর্থে "চাষের উপর সরাসরি কথা বলা") অন্তর্ভুক্ত ছিল, যা রাজা সেজং এর অধীনে সংকলিত একটি কৃষি বই। [৯][১০][১১]

জোসেওনের প্রথমার্ধে একের পর এক আগ্রাসনের ফলে এই সময়ের দ্বিতীয়ার্ধে সংস্কৃতিতে একটি গতিশীল পরিবর্তন ঘটে। সিলাক ("ব্যবহারিক শিক্ষা") এর গ্রুপগুলি কৃষি ব্যবস্থার উন্নতিতে সহায়তা করার জন্য উদ্ভাবন এবং প্রযুক্তির জন্য দেশের বাইরে তাকানোর গুরুত্বের উপর জোর দিতে শুরু করে।  চীন, জাপান, ইউরোপ এবং ফিলিপাইনের সাথে বাণিজ্যের মাধ্যমে অর্জিত নতুন বিশ্ব থেকে ইউরোপীয়দের দ্বারা ব্যবসা  করা ফসলগুলি প্রদর্শিত হতে শুরু  করে; এই ফসলগুলির মধ্যে ভুট্টা, মিষ্টি আলু, মরিচ মরিচ, টমেটো, চিনাবাদাম এবং  স্কোয়াশ অন্তর্ভুক্ত ছিল . আলু এবং মিষ্টি আলু বিশেষভাবে পছন্দ করা হয়েছিল কারণ তারা মাটি এবং এমন অঞ্চলে বেড়ে উঠেছিল যা আগে অব্যবহৃত ছিল। [১২]

সরকার প্রযুক্তি এবং কম করের মাধ্যমে কৃষিকে আরও উন্নত করেছে। সরকার দ্বারা নির্মিত জটিল সেচ ব্যবস্থাগুলি কৃষক কৃষকদের বৃহত্তর ফসলের পরিমাণ উত্পাদন করতে এবং কেবল জীবিকানির্বাহের জন্য নয় বরং নগদ ফসল হিসাবেও ফসল উত্পাদন করার অনুমতি দেয়। কৃষকদের কর হ্রাস ের ফলে ক্রমবর্ধমান পর্যায়ক্রমিক বাজারগুলির মাধ্যমে প্রসারিত বাণিজ্যকে আরও এগিয়ে নিয়ে যায়, যা সাধারণত প্রতি পাঁচ দিনে অনুষ্ঠিত হয়। ঊনবিংশ শতাব্দীতে এ ধরনের এক হাজার বাজার বিদ্যমান ছিল এবং অর্থনৈতিক বাণিজ্য ও বিনোদনের জন্য সাম্প্রদায়িক কেন্দ্র ছিল। [১৩]

জোসেওন যুগের সমাপ্তি পশ্চিমা বিশ্ব, চীন এবং জাপানের সাথে বাণিজ্যে ধারাবাহিক উত্সাহ দ্বারা চিহ্নিত করা হয়েছিল। ১৮৬০-এর দশকে, জাপান সরকার কর্তৃক পরিচালিত বাণিজ্য চুক্তিগুলি জোসেন রাজবংশকে পশ্চিমের সাথে তার বাণিজ্য বন্দরগুলি খুলতে এবং মার্কিন যুক্তরাষ্ট্র, ব্রিটেন, ফ্রান্স এবং অন্যান্য পশ্চিমা দেশগুলির সাথে অসংখ্য চুক্তির দিকে পরিচালিত করে। [১৪]

কোরিয়াকে পশ্চিমা বিশ্বের কাছে উন্মুক্ত করার ফলে সংস্কৃতি ও খাদ্যের আরও আদান-প্রদান ঘটে। পাশ্চাত্য মিশনারিরা কোরিয়ায় নতুন নতুন উপাদান এবং খাবার প্রবর্তন করেছিল। জোসন অভিজাতরা বিদেশীদের মাধ্যমে এই নতুন খাবারগুলির সাথে পরিচয় করিয়ে দেওয়া হয়েছিল যারা উপদেষ্টা বা চিকিত্সক হিসাবে রাজকীয় আদালতে উপস্থিত ছিলেন। এই সময়ের মধ্যে পশ্চিমা ব্যবসায়ীদের মাধ্যমে জাপান থেকে আমদানি করা বিভিন্ন সিজনিং এবং চীন থেকে অ্যালকোহলযুক্ত পানীয়ের প্রবর্তনও দেখা গেছে। [১৫]

 

তথ্যসূত্র

1. "ইতিহাসে কোরিয়ান খাদ্য (πτة)" (কোরিয়ান ভাষায়)। কোরিয়া প্রজাতন্ত্রের সংস্কৃতি, ক্রীড়া ও পর্যটন মন্ত্রণালয়।  ২৭ নভেম্বর ২০১১ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২ আগস্ট ২০১০।

 

2. "কোরিয়ান রন্ধনপ্রণালী (  কোরিয়ান ভাষায়  )।  নাভার / ডুসান এনসাইক্লোপিডিয়া। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২৮ মার্চ ২০০৯।

3. লি, কিউং ওন; Cho, Wookyoun (১৯ জুন ২০১৭)। "দুগ্ধজাত পণ্যের ব্যবহার কোরিয়ান মহিলাদের মধ্যে স্থূলতা এবং বিপাকীয় সিন্ড্রোমের কম ঝুঁকির সাথে যুক্ত কিন্তু পুরুষদের মধ্যে নয়"।  পুষ্টি। 9 (6): 630।  doi: 10.3390 / nu9060630।  আইএসএসএন 2072-6643।  পিএমসি 5490609। পিএমআইডি 28629203।

৪. "অঞ্চল", উইকিপিডিয়া, ১৭ মার্চ ২০২০, সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৪ এপ্রিল ২০২০ উদ্ধৃতি টেমপ্লেট ইংরেজি প্যারামিটার ব্যবহার করেছে (link)

5 "Ssirum"। কোরিয়ান ওভারসিজ ইনফরমেশন সার্ভিস।  ২১ ডিসেম্বর ২০০৮ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা।

6. "Gakjeochong (  কোরিয়ান  ভাষায়)।  নাট /EncyKorea।  ১০ জুন ২০১১ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা।

.7.  পেটিড, ১৩।

8. পেটিড 2008, p.15

9. রাজা Sejong's Humanism, কোরিয়া প্রজাতন্ত্রের জাতীয় পরিষদ থেকে

১০ পেটিড, ১৭।

11. কোরিয়ান স্টাডিজ একাডেমী

১২. পেটিড, ১৮-১৯।

.13. পেটিড, ১৮।

১৪. পেটিড, ১৯।

15. পেটিড, 163.





Rupkatha Pal and Suchana Dutta
17 Sep 2022
Views 14

Topic: Korean Women's Development Institution 

Team: West Bengal Team 1 - team 3

Writers: Rupkatha Pal, Suchana Dutta

Date:16/09/2022

*****************************************

Korean Women’s Development Institution 

                       (한국여성정책연구원)



∆ Introduction :

Korean Women’s Development Institute (Korean:한국여성정책연구원) was established in 1983 and since then it has been driving the development of Korea’s gender equality policy. It has established an active international network based on its expertise in women’s policy that has accumulated over 30 years. Their International Development Cooperation Center has been promoting various activities to leap and develop into a world-class gender equality policy research institute. The 16 th president of Korean Women’s Development Institute is Mun Yoo-kyoung. KWDI provides research and recommendations for establishing national gender equality policies. With this authority, KWDI attempts to support the successful implementation of gender policies in South Korean society, by developing various policy agenda and carrying out data based gender research that incorporates gender perspectives of all ministries. As a global gender research institute, leading an inclusive society in a rapidly changing social environment, KWDI will continue to conduct various research to achieve gender mainstreaming in Korean society.


∆ Vision and Goals : 


KWDI’s vision is to become a global gender equality research institute, leading an inclusive society. KWDI’s mission is to contribute to the establishment of national gender equality policies for realization gender equal society and to the enhancement of citizen happiness. KWDI’s goal is to expand the horizon of future-leading gender research. It wants to innovate research management system through knowledge management. Therefore, it demands to establish a sustainable management innovation system.

KWDI’s strategies are - restricting of labour and family policies during the post COVID 19 and digital transformation era, promotion of gender equality for future and expansion of policy areas to respond to gender violence, reinforcement of basic research for effective implementation of gender mainstreaming, reinforcement of virtuous cycle of research planning for policy consumers, innovation of research process through knowledge information sharing, strengthening the hub function of gender research, establishment of fair and transparent management system, creation of change-driven organizational culture.


∆ Issue Papers : 


~Protecting child and youth victims of sexual exploitation and policy response measures: Focusing on the transmission of sexual images and video in 2022-08-29.


~Measures to promote gender mainstreaming in the Offices of Education in 2022-08-29.


~Determining and addressing structural gender discrimination in employment by using statistical evidence in 2022-08-03.


~Measure to strengthen responses to technology- facilitated sexual violence in 2022-08-03.


~Who Were Vulnerable to Childcare Constraints during COVID-19 in 2022-05-30.


~Legal Limitations in Response to Stalking and Measures to Strengthen Victim Protection and Support in 2022-05-30.


~Digital Transformation and the Future of Women’s Labour in 2021-11-10.


~The Experience of Cohabitation without Marriage among Older Women and Policy Implications in 2021-08-31.


~Shifting the Direction of Gender -Based Violence Prevention Policies as Equality Policies in 2021 -07-30 etc.


Especially, in “Measures to Strengthen Responses to Technology - Facilitated Sexual Violence Reflecting the Characteristics of The Crime”- Despite a rapid increase in technology facilitated sexual violence (TFSV), responses to the crime including punishment remain lagging behind. Here they are examining the characteristics of TFSV and the limitations of existing laws in responses to the crime and discuss measures to improve the legal system.


∆ Research Projects : 


~ A Study on Female Participation in the National Employment Support System and Suggestions for improving to the Female Employment Service System in 2021 by Jeong Seongmi.


~Study On Ways for Legislation to Reinforce the Protection and Support of Stalking Victims in 2021 by Kim Jeonghye.


~Performance Evaluation and Policy Agenda of National Tasks on Gender Equality in 2021 by Choi Yoojin.


~ A study of improving medical access for safe abortion in 2020 by Kim Dongsik.


~A Study Gender Gender Statistics of the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism in 2021 by Joo Jaeseon.


~Ways to Strengthen the Function of Feedback in the Gender Responsive Budget Closing System in 2021 by Park SooBum.


~Ways to Link in-depth Evaluation System and the Gender Budgeting System (III) in 2021 by Kim Hyojoo.


~Ways of Legislative Improvement in Response to Technology-Facilitated Sexual Violence in 2021 by Kim Jeonghye etc.


∆ Gender Equality Policy in Womens' lives :


Various areas of women’s lives have become main issues in establishing and evaluating gender equality policies, and the areas are always closely related to each other. For example, issues in women’s economic activity are not simply related to internal factors of the labor market but they are also closely related to external factors of the labor market, including the structure of families, decision-making structure and relationships in the family, and social and cultural rituals and practices.


The Korean Women’s Development Institute has conducted the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women and Families (KLoWF), a nationwide panel survey, in order to investigate women’s lives and the structure of families and changes in families since 2006. This longitudinal survey keeps track of changes in women’s status in economic activities by life cycle and job experiences as well as changes in family relationships and values, family types, family formation process and events, and family structure. (2015, KLoWF, Annual Report )


∆ International Cooperation : 


International Cooperation Promotion Project Center for International Development and Cooperation is promoting various exchanges and cooperation with international organizations and overseas related organizations with the aim of internationalizing research capabilities and advancing Korean women's policies. Through holding international conferences, dispatching researchers abroad, and inviting foreign experts, we are strengthening our international capabilities, discovering leading policy agendas, and promoting international spread of research results. In addition, we are laying the foundation for continuous research exchanges by signing MOUs with leading foreign institutions. Meanwhile, before and after joining the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC), we have been actively conducting research and business activities for development cooperation in Korea and mainstreaming sex related to public development assistance (ODA). Since 2011, it has been carrying out the multi-year ODA research project, "The Asia-Pacific Gender Equality Policy Infrastructure Reinforcement Project," and is actively participating in discussions on the gender maintenance of international development cooperation through various cooperation with domestic and foreign ODA- related ministries and institutions.


Commissioned by the ministry of Gender Equality and Family in 2015, KWDI compiled gender profiles of 24 countries with the result of a comprehensive gender analysis of the situation of women and men. The 24 countries are; Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines, Bangladesh, Mongolia, Laos, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Myanmar from the region Asia; Ghana, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania, Senegal from the region Africa; Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan from the region Central Asia; Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay from the region Latin America.


∆ Joint Research with Multilateral Agencies  :


Joint Research with Multilateral Agencies are-

~‘Enhancing Women’s and Girls’ Safety and Mobility in Public Spaces: Review of Evidence and Lessons learned from Selected Countries in the Asia and the Pacific’ - by UN Women Asia and the Pacific in 2016 .


~‘A Complex Formula: Girls and Women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in Asia '.


~By UNESCO Bangkok in 2015; - ‘Gender,Jobs and Education: Prospects and Realities in the Asia - Pacific’ by UNESCO Bangkok in 2013.


In the detail of ‘Gender, Jobs and Education: Prospects and Realities in the Asia - Pacific’ by UNESCO Bangkok in 2013, they realized the need for a Gender-Sensitive Approach to Addressing the Gender/Class Gap in Digital Infrastructure Accessibility.


In this regard, they conducted a survey on 5,000 Korean men and women aged 18~69 to figure out the Korean public’s perception of social changes brought by digital transformation, identify the gender gap in terms of digital accessibility and utilization, and thereby to provide the basic data for establishing mid-to-long-term strategies of gender equality policy. More women than men had experience of seeking jobs through online platforms, and there was a large gap in their job-seeking experience depending on whether they own a personal computer or not. Only 25.4% of the survey participants were ‘currently not employed’, but 4 out of 10 such participants answered that they have sought jobs through online platforms (Internet website, mobile app, etc.) for 3 months previous to the survey period. In terms of gender, women (44.3%) had more experience of seeking jobs through online platforms than men (42.6%). Particularly, the gender gap based on the employment status and socioeconomic status was the most significant (12.1%p) in the group of non-wage workers such as self-employed people, employers, and unpaid family workers, where 51.9% of women and 39.8% of men had the experience of seeking jobs through online platforms. 


In conclusion, this study confirms that women have sufficient capabilities to adapt to digital transformation, as shown in the survey result where more women than men have the experience of using digital devices and seeking jobs through online platforms. Nevertheless, women in particular, women with low subjective class status had lower access to digital infrastructure such as a personal computer, compared to men. Therefore, efforts are needed to ensure universal access to digital infrastructure. Kim Seona (Associate Research Fellow, Center for Gender Equality Strategy, KWDI), Jeong Yunmi (Researcher, Center for Gender Equality Strategy, KWDI )


∆ Special Briefs on Covid 19 Crisis :


Marking the end of the first year of the COVID-19 crisis, the Korean Women's Development Institute (KWDI) decided to publish three special briefs in order to reflect on the transformed lives of women over the past year and predict how the crisis, which has yet to end, will shift the characteristics of gender inequality in our society. Based on the survey conducted from November to December last year targeting 3,007 female workers, this special report diagnoses the changes in women's work and care along with the government policies designed to address them, and thereby proposes policy implications for achieving a sustainable gender equal society during and after the COVID-19 pandemic .


The Korean Women's Development Institute (KWDI) surveyed people working in the care and education sectors with a typically high concentration of female workers, including domestic workers, childcare providers, and after-school teachers, to investigate the changes in their jobs and incomes before and after the COVID-19 crisis and to analyze policy requests. All three groups including domestic workers, childcare providers, and after-school teachers reported some degree of job and income reduction. The survey found that domestic workers and after-school teachers mainly provided face-to-face service and had relatively low Employment Insurance subscription rates as they are categorized as non-salaried workers. Childcare providers were found to have relatively high Employment.


∆ Research Publications :


~ Preparatory Research on 9th National Report on CEDAW of the Republic of Korea in 2021.


~A Study on Feminist Foreign Policy Mainstreaming Gender in Foreign and Security Policy; The Caseof Feminist Foreign Policy in 2021 managed by Yoon Jiso.


~ Protection on Refuge Assistance; A Case Study on Women and Children Programs in 2020.


~ Evaluation of Vocational Development Program for Women (VDPW) (2017-2019) and Suggestions for improvement in 2020.


~ Development of Training Program and Education Modules for Local Government’s Capacity Building on Gender sensitive Education in Nepal in 2019.


~ Review of Global Agenda on Gender Equality and South Korea’s Experience in 2019 managed  by Jang Eunha.


~ A Study on Women’s Unions in Southeast Asian Countries and its implications for North Korean Development Cooperation on Gender; Cases from Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar in 2019.


~ Needs assessment for establishing gender-sensitive learning environment in Nepal in 2018 .


~ National implementation for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in South Korea: Gender-related Targets and Indicators in 2017 and many more.


∆ Women and Children policies : 


~ A Review on Decline of Son Preference in South Korea in 2017 managed by Kim Youngtaek.


~ Law and Policy on the Public Disclosure of Child Sex Traffickers Information in Korea in 2017 managed by Kim Hankyun.


~ A Study on the Gender-sensitive Textbook Revision in South Korea in 2017 managed by Seol Kyu-joo.


~One-Stop Service for Sexual Violence Victims in Korea: The Case of Seoul Sunflower Center (children) in 2016 managed by Woo Gyeong-hui.


~ Child Care and Education Policies in Korea in 2016 by Lee Mi-hwa.


~ Women’s Political Empowerment: The Case of Parliamentary Monitoring in 2016 managed by Kim Eunhui.


~ Policies for Women’s Vocational Education and Business Start-ups in Korea in 2015 managed by Oh Eun-Jin.


∆ Gender Statistics by Korean Women Development Institute :


In 2018 Share of career interrupted women among married women aged 15 to 54 - 20.5%


In 2019 Share of men among workers on childcare leave - 21.2%


 In 2020 Proportion of females among university faculty members - 27%


 In 2020 Percentage of elected female lawmakers - 11.5 %

∆ Source :


https://eng.kwdi.re.k

r/ce% 0%2%% teini wai oon k s e., 9  by9 200  se1 nst.c.is) .uty.. a’;e;esa.s.ont)s.esc.ooumonikinyemitsm.c.31100 303 3 2929s ..ofaly.n) ng university faculty members - 27.0%

 

 In 2020 Percentage of elected female lawmakers - 11.5%


∆ Source :


https://eng.kwdi.re.kr/



Inaas Fatima Khan
16 Sep 2022
Views 7

1. Topic- Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport- Housing System Policies of South Korea  

2. Writer- West Bengal-2 (Poonam Shenoy & Inaas Fatima Khan) 

3. Short Explanation - This article gives out information regarding Housing System Policies in South Korea. It contains an Overview, History, and Evolution of the policies made and amended by the government of South Korea.

4. Link- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Poshenoy1123/sandbox

Diyasha Datta
16 Sep 2022
Views 10
  1. Topic: Gender Equality and Family Culture in South Korea
  2. Writer: WBT2 (English Sub Team: Sucheta Adhikary and Diyasha Datta)
  3. Short Explanation: We created a Wikipedia page on "Gender Equality and Family Culture in South Korea" in English. Family relationships are crucial in South Korea. The unique family values every household upholds make Korean society the way it is today. Confucian philosophy defined the traditional Korean family structure. By placing family harmony over individual happiness, many Koreans emphasized the importance of family, rather than self-expression.
  4. Link: Gender Equality and Family Culture in South Korea  
Bijuri Dey
16 Sep 2022
Views 9

Topic: South Korea’s Financial Crisis - Causes and Recovery (Wiki English)

Team: West Bengal Team 1

Writers: Bijuri Dey, Himani Saha, Meghobarna Kundu, Pallabi Das

Date: 2022?09/02

Wikipedia Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Draft:South_Korea’s_Financial_Crisis_-_Causes_and_Recovery



Introduction:


South Korea’s financial stability and economic situation was thought to be bulletproof on its own. From 1963 to 1996, the country had the record of procuring an annual growth rate of 8.8% (Kwon, 1998). Therefore, the sudden financial crisis and economic collapse faced by the country during 1997 shocked its citizens and the financial experts to a great extent. Apart from South Korea, many other countries such as Thailand, Mexico, also faced the same situation. The sole difference in the case of South Korea, however, is that the authorities, while being confronted with such a crisis, opted for an ambitious, impactful, hard but necessary solution (Sharma, 2013).


Background:


The severe financial crisis, known as the ‘Asian Crisis’ began in 1997 in Thailand, where the exchange rate was rigid, and the economy was quite dependent on the foreign loans. When the foreign investors began to withdraw, the country faced an enormous crisis. Indonesia became the next and then South Korea. The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) growth rate decreased to 6.7% from the pre-crisis rate of 7-8%, caused by a major collapse in the investment (Lee & Rhee, 2007).


Causes:


From inclusion of the conglomerates to mismatched currencies- there were quite a few reasons behind the 97’s Economic crisis. Even though each of the reason’s nature was different, all of these led the country towards a disastrous financial situation.


Role of the ‘Chaebols’:


For decades before the financial crisis the Korean government used to allocate the capital among its conglomerates, known as ‘chaebols’ along with other medium and small size organisations (Hunter, 1999). The government also supervised the financial resource allocation by controlling both the state-owned and commercial banks. The complicated relationship between the government, conglomerates, and the banks, however, led to inadequate supervision and not so efficient use of capital. Some of the merchant banks, owned by the conglomerates, used to have lesser regulations than the other banks. All these resulted in making the debt/equity ratio of 30 major conglomerates 500% leading the major steelmaker of the country Hanbo Iron and Steel into bankruptcy in 1997. The collapse was soon followed by the fall of some other companies such as Kia Motor, Haitai and Jinro (Borensztein, Eduardo and Lee, 1999).


Role of the Banking Sectors:


The other reason behind the situation can be attributed to the liquidity crisis caused by the withdrawal of the foreign short-term investors and a severely mismatched balance sheet (Radelet & Sachs, 1998). Like other Asian countries, South Korean banks were also having problems with short term foreign investments. The Korean government allowed and provided incentives to many local banks and larger companies to borrow foreign currencies for the cause of industrial development. While the domestic loans were long-term, the borrowings from foreign countries were in foreign currencies and short-term. Expectantly the result was major currency mismatches (Kwon, 1998).


Role of the Securities Market:


Apart from the conglomerates and the banking sector, the underdeveloped securities market also aided the financial crisis of the country. The stock market could not flourish as the private organisations were reluctant to rely on it. The reason was the fear of possible dilution of the family legacy and control over old money (Business Week, 1998). The citizens were also afraid to invest in the stocks as the return was much less than alternatives such as commercial banks. The lack of transparency in providing financial information by the fund managers might also be the reason. All of these led to heavy dependence on the foreign investments (Kwon, 1998).


Recovery:


Just like the various interlinked causes behind the crisis, the recovery process also includes several interconnected factors. South Korea managed to start the recovery process from 1999, nearly a year after the situation turned bleak. The GDP rate increased and reached 9.5% in 1999 and 8.5% in 2000. The reasons behind this ‘V’ shaped recovery included those from the earlier crisis episodes (Lee & Rhee, 2002).


 Contribution of IMF:


Upon inspecting the situation, the International Monetary Fund provided help. On December 3, 1997, the first IMF programme was signed and on December 24, the second IMF programme was signed. These programmes helped in the reduction of short-term liquidity crisis (Lee & Rhee, 2007).

 

Reformed Macroeconomic Policies:


Along with the IMF intervention, the fast recovery was also possible due to the fast adjustment of certain microeconomic policies. In the middle of 1998, the country changed its monetary and fiscal policies and expanded those (Kramer, 2019).

 

Structural Reform Initiatives:


On December 29, 1997, the South Korean government released a series of financial reform bills and the strategies included were the reformation of the Bank of Korea Law and establishment of the Financial Supervisory Committee. This way, the Central Bank managed to gain independence from the government to a great extent. The Financial Supervisory Committee’s Chair was appointed by the President. The establishment of this committee initiated development of the economic policies, the Monetary and Foreign Exchange policies by the Bank of Korea and supervising the entire situation (Kwon, 1998).


Conclusion:


Among the contributing factors, South Korea managed to handle the economic crises and work towards its recovery because of how the government controlled the entire situation along with managing the other variables such as unemployment, GDP growth and so on. Creation of alternative sources of funds and adjustments of the labours also played significant roles in controlling the crisis (Koo & Kosher, 2001).


Source

  1. Kwon, O. Yul (1998): ‘The Korean Financial Crisis: Diagnosis, Remedies and Prospects’, Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 3:3, P 331-357
  2. Shalendra, D. Sharma (2013): ‘How South Korea Weathered the 2008 Financial Crisis’, Global Asia, Vol.8, No. 1
  3. Lee Jong-Wha & Rhee Changyong (2007): ‘Crisis and Recovery: What We Have Learned from the South Korean Experience?’, Asian Economic Policy Review, p 146-164
  4. Hunter, William C. (1999): ‘The Korean Banking Crisis: Picking up the Pieces’, The Asian Financial Crisis: Origins, Implications, and Solutions’
  5. Borensztein, Eduardo and Lee, Jong-Wha (1999): ‘Credit Allocation and Financial Crisis in Korea’, International Monetary Fund Working Paper, Washington, D.C.
  6. Radelet, Steven and Sachs, Jeffrey (1998): ‘The Onset of the Asian Financial Crisis’, NBER Working Paper Series’, No. 6680. Cambridge, Mass: National Bureau of Economic Research, August.
  7. Kramer, Leslie (2019): ‘What is Fiscal Policy?’ Investopedia. Dotdash.
  8. Koo, Jahyeong and Kiser, Sherry L. (2001): ‘Recovery from a Financial Crisis: The Case of South Korea’, Economic and Financial Review.
  9. Black, Terry and Black, Susan (1999): ‘The Korean Financial Crisis: Causes, Effects and Solutions’


Juhi Majumder
16 Sep 2022
Views 18

Topic: Cultural Foundation of National Museum of Korea 

Writers: WBT1 (English Sub Team: Juhi Majumder, Eshani Bora and  Yoshitha Chigarapalli


INTRODUCTION

The Cultural Foundation of National Museum of Korea ( Korean: 국립박물관문화재단 ) is a public organization established in 2004 under the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism with it's vision to convert museums into complex spaces of cultural and art activities. The Cultural Foundation aims to carry out a wide range of cultural and art activities, in addition to creating an enjoyable museum experience for the people.


History

The Cultural Foundation of National Museum of Korea was established in July 2004 tries to preserve Korea's cultural heritage, and enhance the public's cultural understanding. In 2005, the Foundation relocated to Yongsan and launched several project initiatives. In the consecutive year, it was announced as a professional art organization. In January of 2011, the Cultural Foundation was launched as per the Act to Promote Museum and Art Galleries.


VISION and CORE VALUES

Creating diverse cultural content to enhance cultural heritage values. The Foundation values cultural appreciation, promotion of art and culture, customer satisfaction, closer collaboration, and strong labor-management relationship.


MAIN ACTIVITIES

The foundation implements various art and cultural activities, along with initiatives to enhance visitors' experience and create rich cultural content. 


Cultural & Art Performances: Established in 2005, THEATER YONG is Korea's first theater to be housed within a museum. After staging various performances ranging from ballet, classical music, opera, modern dance, imperial dance, plays, and musicals in its launching year, the theater has played a central role in the past ten years in transforming the museum from a venue to exhibiting historical relics into a complex cultural and art space that provides a diverse array of programs. 


Design & Promotion of Museum Cultural Products: Drawing from the museum's cultural assets, the foundation designs and introduces unique cultural products that can be found at various museums and public organizations across the country. These items reflect Korea's history, and cultural heritage and are made using the finest design and technology.[2]


EDUCATION & PUBLICATION


The foundation develops and provides education programs related to museum exhibitions and publish exhibition catalogue, along with various other books to enrich visitors' experience.


Education: The Cultural Foundation of National Museum of Korea pursues holistic education that promotes acquiring new knowledge and developing new perspectives for more sophisticated thinking. They organize and provide a variety of programs including the foundation's widely known lecture series on creative business management.


Publications: The foundation is the only museum specialized publisher in Korea. They publish exhibition catalogue and research papers for the National Museum of Korea and affiliated museums across the country. Thus broadening the scope of publication to humanities, children's books, and learning materials.


Museum Bookstore: The bookstore is equipped with catalogues and research papers from museums across the country, as well as academic works, introductory humanities books, and children's books. The Cultural Foundation of National Museum of Korea also offers diverse book exhibitions and special book curating based on their in-house curators' recommendations.


SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY


Since the establishment of The Cultural Foundation of National Museum of Korea in 2004, it has engaged in various activities to bring the world of art to the public. Under the motto 'Culture Sharing', the foundation has organized various events including cultural feasts, museum visits for people with limited opportunities to engage in cultural activities, and invitations to theater performances to spread the appreciation and the enjoyment of art among the public. The Cultural Foundation of National Museum of Korea's management and employees actively seek to give back to the community through contributing to UNICEF, donating secondhand clothes, sponsoring tuition fees for youths, donating books, and more.


References

https://www.nmf.or.kr/enguser/main/main.dohttp://m.stoo.com/article.php?aid=79786812565

https://daily.hankooki.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=864214

https://www.nmf.or.kr/enguser/sub/20181203180137817100_contents.do

https://www.museum.go.kr/site/eng/content/https%3A%2F%2Fwww.museum.go.kr%2Fsite%2Feng%2Fcontent%2Fdirectors_message

https://www.nmf.or.kr/enguser/sub/20181203175255887100_contents.do

https://daily.hankooki.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=864214

https://www.sisunnews.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=163448

http://m.stoo.com/article.php?aid=79786812565


Shirsha Singh
16 Sep 2022
Views 8

1. Topic: Korean Alcoholic Drinks

2. Writer: WBT3 (English Sub Team: Sukanya and Shirsha)

3. Short Explanation: We added relevant information on the Wikipedia page of 'Korean Alcoholic Drinks' in English. Korean cuisine has a wide variety of traditional alcoholic drinks, known as sul (술). Many of these drinks end with the Sino-Korean word -ju (주; 酒), and some end with the native Korean word -sul. The Sino-Korean -ju is not used as an independent noun. There are an estimated 1,000 or more kinds of alcoholic drinks in Korea. Most are made from rice and are fermented with the aid of yeast and nuruk (a wheat-based source of the enzyme amylase). Fruits, flowers, herbs, and other natural ingredients have also been used to craft traditional Korean alcoholic drinks. There are six distinct flavors: sweet, sour, pungent, roasted, bitter, and spicy. When the flavors are balanced, the alcohol is considered of good quality.

4. Link: Korean Alcoholic Drinks

Shirsha Singh
16 Sep 2022
Views 8

1. Topic: Single Parents in South Korea (दक्षिण कोरिया में एकल माता-पिता)

2. Writer: WBT3 (Hindi Team 2: Suparna, Vaishali, Ritoja, Shirsha)

3. Short Explanation: We created a Wikipedia page on 'Single Parents in South Korea' in Hindi. Single parents in South Korea are one of the social issues facing South Korea. The term single-parent family" is a mixture of pure Korean words "한 (single)" "부모 (parent)" and "family." Here, "한" means "big," "full," and "whole," rather than one, meaning that a single-parent family is as healthy and happy as any other family.

4. Link: Single Parents in South Korea (दक्षिण कोरिया में एकल माता-पिता)

Shirsha Singh
16 Sep 2022
Views 10

1. Topic: Coffee in South Korea (दक्षिण कोरिया में कॉफ़ी)

2. Writer: WBT3 (Hindi Team 2: Ritoja, Shirsha, Suparna, Vaishali)

3. Short Explanation: We created a Wikipedia page on 'Coffee in South Korea' in Hindi. Coffee in South Korea has been a strong element in South Korean culture. Originating in the 19th century, it has become a prominent commodity in South Korean marketplaces. It is one of the most popular beverages in the area.

4. Link: Coffee in South Korea (दक्षिण कोरिया में कॉफ़ी)