1 Jan 2024
Views 7

Topic: TOPIK- Test of Proficiency in Korean

Writer: Ruksar

Academic Field of Study: Humanities and Social Sciences | Anthropology| Linguistics & Languages

Short Explanation of the Article- The article addresses the Korean language proficiency test, commonly referred to as TOPIK. Its primary objective is to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the examination's structure for the reader. By including the various sections, levels, and specific skill assessments incorporated within the TOPIK, the article endeavors to provide a nuanced insight into the examination's intricacies. 


What is TOPIK?

The Test of Proficiency in Korean, or TOPIK, is a written exam used to assess non-native speakers' proficiency in the language in terms of expression and comprehension. The Korean language's reading, writing, and listening comprehension skills are assessed using the TOPIK exam. There are three test levels: Advanced, Intermediate, and Beginner. There are six levels. Level 1 and 2 for Beginner, level 3,4,5,6 for Intermediate and Advance. These six grades are used to express additional accuracy; two are assigned to each level in order to assess proficiency.

Purpose of Exam

By evaluating language proficiency, the TOPIK exam seeks to assist non-native and overseas Koreans in their language learning. Findings have an impact on employment opportunities and college admissions in Korea, making them an essential tool for advancing one's career and personal life in Korean-speaking settings. Academic institutions often use TOPIK scores as a reliable metric to assess the language proficiency of prospective students, ensuring that they possess the necessary skills to thrive in a Korean-language academic environment.


As discussed earlier there are 6 levels; 1,2,3,4,5,6. Level 1 is considered as the lowest and 6 is considered as the highest level of proficiency.

TOPIK 1- Level 1,2 (Beginner)

TOPIK 2- Level 3,4,5,6 (Intermediate and Advance)



Passing Marks

Total Marks



















Passing Marks


Level 1


Level 2


Level 3


Level 4


Level 5


Level 6


However, many countries like India does not evaluate speaking in TOPIK Exam.


Time Duration

Tests for the Beginner level (TOPIK-I) and Intermediate-Advanced level (TOPIK-II) are typically administered in the morning and afternoon, respectively. The 100-minute TOPIK-I exam will be completed in a single session, with the 40-minute listening portion and the 60-minute reading portion. The three-hour TOPIK-II exam is divided into two sessions with a brief break in between. Two sections make up the first session paper (110 minutes): Writing and Listening, and Reading makes up the single section of the second session paper (70 minutes).

Validity Period

TOPIK is valid for 2 years from the date of result announcement.


Official TOPIK website

1 Jan 2024
Views 5

Topic: Hangeul- Korean Gem

Writer: Ruksar

Academic Field of Study: Humanities and Social Sciences | Anthropology| Linguistics & Languages

Short Explanation of the Article- The article centers on the evolution of Hangeul, the script of the Korean language, with a particular emphasis on its inception and subsequent proliferation throughout history and its growth with support from King Sejong the Great in the 15th century. By tracing its journey, we aim to give a clear picture of Hangeul's history and its cultural importance in the Korean language. 


Korea, is a country located in the easternmost part of the Asian continent. Despite its relatively small territorial size with a population of 51,768,428, holds a rich cultural and historical significance. Korean people use “Korean” to converse with each other every day. Korean script, across the world is known as “Hangeul.”  Around 82 million people use and study Hangul worldwide.

       The fourth king of the Joseon Dynasty, King Sejong, and his scholars wrote the Korean text Hangeul in the fifteenth century. Because there was no writing before Korean, people used to use Chinese characters known as Hanja. But this Chinese character was too complicated and numerous for the average person to use. Thus, education was limited to the aristocratic class. King Sejong as the great king felt sorry for those who at the time had no idea what to write. So, he made Hangul, a letter that all people can easily learn and use. Hangeul can be easily learned not only by the educated but also by common people. In 1443, King Sejong created Hangul and announced it on October 9, 1446. Hangeul, initially designed for the common people, held significant importance in its early years. Despite a growing number of literate individuals among the ruling classes, the use of Hangeul by them was infrequent, except in exceptional circumstances. The governing elite predominantly utilized official and privileged characters—namely, Chinese characters and writings—rather than the more accessible Hangeul. Hangeul is a sound letter. Hangeul is easy to learn and can write down almost all the different pronunciations. Hangul is one of the most scientific and systematic letters in the world. So, in 1997, UNESCO designated Hangul as a World Heritage Site. Even foreigners can learn Hangul easily. Thanks to the proud text, Korea is also recognized around the world. Upon its initial invention, King Sejong called Han-geul "Hoon Min Jung Um" (훈민정음). It refers to "The true sound(letters) to be used to teach people". But the nobles of that era did not welcome Han-geul, and because they believed that China was the centre of the world, they continued to regard Han-geul with contempt in contrast to Chinese literature and characters. As a result, Han-geul was frequently referred to as "Unmun(언문)" while Chinese characters and writings were called "Jinseo(진서)-meaning true letters."

Expansion of Hangeul

Women were crucial to the growth of Hangeul usage. Despite being taught Chinese writings in noble classes, it appears that women began to use Hangeul more frequently over time. As a result, they write in Hangeul in correspondence with men or other women. Han-geul also published a large number of books, the majority of which were written for female readers. This also demonstrates the significant contribution that women made to the growth of Hangeul use.

Moreover, it is impossible to ignore the influence of Buddhism. The common people's perception of Buddhism remained strong even after the Chosun Dynasty officially suppressed it and prioritized Confucianism. Notably, important individuals who contributed to the development and popularization of Hangeul, like King Sejong and Sejo, had a strong Buddhist faith.

Novels played a significant role in the spread of Hangeul in the 17th and 18th centuries. Chinese novels were a popular pastime for many members of the ruling class at the time. They read popular novels and love stories instead of the pure classics, and some aristocrats who read a lot of them also employed comparable literary devices in their own works. (This also provided King Chungjo with a reason to be crowned (文櫕反正)) These novels were widely read by regular people and translated into Hangeul.

Hangeul Day

The history of Hangeul Day's designation as today, October 9, had its share with complications. Since Han-geul was created by King Sejong in secret, there is no clear documentation of its creation, not even in the canonical chronicles of history. In 1443, King Sejong created Hangul and announced it on October 9, 1446. Therefore, in Korea, October and September are set as Hangeul Day every year. Presently, the global community holds deep admiration for the innovative spirit that led to the creation of Hangeul. Since 1990, an institution or organization in each nation that actively supports the fight against illiteracy has been awarded the 'King Sejong Prize,' named after King Sejong, by UNESCO, a United Nations agency. The fact that Korea has such a low rate of illiteracy in comparison to other countries is directly related to King Sejong's invention of Hangeul, which made it simple for all of his subjects to learn and use. Indeed, "Hangeul" can be considered a precious gem for the Korean people, serving not only as a distinctive element of their identity but also as a source of immense pride.


National Institute of Korean Language

Suchana Dutta
25 Nov 2023
Views 24

ACADEMIC FIELD / अकादमिक क्षेत्र : Anthropology /मनुष्य जाति का विज्ञान

TOPIC/विषय: Taju Dance / ताजू नृत्य (타주춤)

COUNTRY / देश: India / भारत

WRITERS' NAME / समूह के सदस्यों का नाम : TANIYA SINGH , NIKITA YADAV, SUCHANA DUTTA/ निकिता, सुचना दत्ता, तानिया सिंह (WB1)

DATE/ तारीख :23.11.2023

BRIEF DESCRIPTION/संक्षिप्त विवरण:


             Taju Dance / ताजू नृत्य (타주춤)

It is one of the Buddhist ceremonial dances called Jakbeopmu . Two people holding tajuchae perform the Jakbeop dance with an octagonal wooden pillar representing the Eightfold Path (八正道) in the middle. The octagonal wooden pillar, called Baekchu or Baektu, has the eight practices of the Eightfold Path engraved on each side , and the word “One Heart” is written at the top. When dancing, the white weight is used, so it is called Taju dance in the sense of hitting the pillar [柱], and the person who dances Taju dance is also called Taju.The dance movements of Tajuchum are so monotonous that they cannot be called dances, but they have the characteristics of a unique religious ritual dance that moves toward enlightenment through polite and symbolic movements.

यह बौद्ध अनुष्ठानिक नृत्यों में से एक है जिसे जकबेओपमु कहा जाता है। ताजुचे धारण करने वाले दो लोग बीच में आठ गुना पथ (八正道) का प्रतिनिधित्व करने वाले एक अष्टकोणीय लकड़ी के खंभे के साथ जकबीप नृत्य करते हैं। अष्टकोणीय लकड़ी के खंभे, जिसे बैक्चू या बैक्तु कहा जाता है, में प्रत्येक तरफ आठ गुना पथ की आठ प्रथाएं उत्कीर्ण हैं, और शीर्ष पर "वन हार्ट" शब्द लिखा हुआ है। नृत्य करते समय सफेद वजन का उपयोग किया जाता है, इसलिए इसे खंभे से टकराने के अर्थ में ताजू नृत्य कहा जाता है [柱], और जो व्यक्ति ताजू नृत्य करता है उसे ताजू भी कहा जाता है।ताजुचम की नृत्य गतिविधियाँ इतनी नीरस हैं कि उन्हें नृत्य नहीं कहा जा सकता है, लेकिन उनमें एक अद्वितीय धार्मिक अनुष्ठान नृत्य की विशेषताएं हैं जो विनम्र और प्रतीकात्मक आंदोलनों के माध्यम से ज्ञान की ओर बढ़ती हैं।


                     Taju Dance (타주춤) 


It is one of the Buddhist ceremonial dances called Jakbeopmu . Two people holding tajuchae perform the Jakbeop dance with an octagonal wooden pillar representing the Eightfold Path (八正道) in the middle. The octagonal wooden pillar, called Baekchu or Baektu, has the eight practices of the Eightfold Path engraved on each side , and the word “One Heart” is written at the top. When dancing, the white weight is used, so it is called Taju dance in the sense of hitting the pillar [柱], and the person who dances Taju dance is also called Taju.

Tajuchum, a traditional Korean dance, is performed in a restaurant setting, similar to the butterfly dance. It involves monks offering bowls at Yeongsanjae, a ritualized event. The dance's basic procedure and meaning are similar to regular bowls, but with the addition of beompae and jakbeopmu. Tajuchum is performed at designated points, gradually moving towards Buddhahood. The attire is similar to the butterfly dance, with tajuchae carried instead of flowers and the taju dance included.

Taju dance is a form of expression that focuses on the Baekchu, a central figure in Buddhism. Two Taju dancers perform compositions centered on the Baekchu, symbolizing the progression of understanding Buddhism. The technique involves placing a white weight in the center and turning to the right, or striking it, symbolizing the gradual learning of Buddhism from ignorance. The repetition of this action signifies the stage of gradually learning from a state of ignorance. The timing and number of strikes are determined by the sound of the Dangjwa Temple and the Gwangsoe ring.

The Baekchu, a central figure in Buddhism, is a symbol of the essence of the teachings. The Baekchu is a symbol of the essence of the teachings, a concept that is central to the teachings of the Heart Sutra. The Baekchu is held by two masters, who perform the Taju dance while holding it. This signifies the realization of the principle of emptiness, which is the core of the Heart Sutra. The Taju dance involves tapping the upper part of the Baekchu with a Taju stick, demonstrating awareness of the principles of Buddhism. The Lotus Flower, a symbol of the proper state of affairs, is also a key aspect of the teachings. The main music of Samhyeonyukgak resonates to signal the achievement of two steps. The third Uyojab and Taju dance, Gwonban (勸飯), signifies the realization of the truth, indicating that one has not yet reached the stage of learning it. The butterfly dance, performed by the other masters, signifies the realization of the correct principles, like abandoning a raft after crossing a river. The bar dance, performed after the butterfly dance, symbolizes the joy of achieving enlightenment.

•Features and Significance:

The dance movements of Tajuchum are so monotonous that they cannot be called dances, but they have the characteristics of a unique religious ritual dance that moves toward enlightenment through polite and symbolic movements. With the Baekchu symbolizing the Eightfold Path at the center, the body movements and dance moves of Taju symbolize the steps toward enlightenment, revealing the reprimand and reflection on practice and the joy of Buddhism.


Balwoo offering, containing the spirit of Buddhism (Goo Mi-rae, Seoul Metropolitan Government Department of History and Cultural Heritage, 2014), Yeongsanjae (Sang-hyeon Sim, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2003), and a study on the establishment and rites of construction of Yeongsan-jae (Sang-hyeon Shim, Widuk University doctoral thesis, 2011).


                       ताजू नृत्य (타주춤)


यह बौद्ध अनुष्ठानिक नृत्यों में से एक है जिसे जकबेओपमु कहा जाता है। ताजुचे धारण करने वाले दो लोग बीच में आठ गुना पथ (八正道) का प्रतिनिधित्व करने वाले एक अष्टकोणीय लकड़ी के खंभे के साथ जकबीप नृत्य करते हैं। अष्टकोणीय लकड़ी के खंभे, जिसे बैक्चू या बैक्तु कहा जाता है, में प्रत्येक तरफ आठ गुना पथ की आठ प्रथाएं उत्कीर्ण हैं, और शीर्ष पर "वन हार्ट" शब्द लिखा हुआ है। नृत्य करते समय सफेद वजन का उपयोग किया जाता है, इसलिए इसे खंभे से टकराने के अर्थ में ताजू नृत्य कहा जाता है [柱], और जो व्यक्ति ताजू नृत्य करता है उसे ताजू भी कहा जाता है।

ताजुचम, एक पारंपरिक कोरियाई नृत्य, तितली नृत्य के समान, एक रेस्तरां सेटिंग में किया जाता है। इसमें येओंगसंजाए में भिक्षुओं को कटोरे चढ़ाना शामिल है, जो एक अनुष्ठानिक कार्यक्रम है। नृत्य की मूल प्रक्रिया और अर्थ नियमित कटोरे के समान हैं, लेकिन बीओम्पाए और जकबेओपमू के अतिरिक्त के साथ। ताजुचुम का प्रदर्शन निर्दिष्ट बिंदुओं पर किया जाता है, जो धीरे-धीरे बुद्धत्व की ओर बढ़ता है। यह पोशाक तितली नृत्य के समान है, जिसमें फूलों के स्थान पर ताजुचाए पहने जाते हैं और ताजू नृत्य भी शामिल होता है।

ताजू नृत्य अभिव्यक्ति का एक रूप है जो बौद्ध धर्म में एक केंद्रीय व्यक्ति बैक्चू पर केंद्रित है। दो ताजू नर्तक बैक्चू पर केंद्रित रचनाएँ प्रस्तुत करते हैं, जो बौद्ध धर्म को समझने की प्रगति का प्रतीक है। इस तकनीक में केंद्र में एक सफेद वजन रखना और दाईं ओर मुड़ना, या उस पर प्रहार करना शामिल है, जो अज्ञानता से बौद्ध धर्म की क्रमिक शिक्षा का प्रतीक है। इस क्रिया की पुनरावृत्ति अज्ञानता की स्थिति से धीरे-धीरे सीखने की अवस्था को दर्शाती है। हमलों का समय और संख्या डांगज्वा मंदिर और ग्वांगसो रिंग की ध्वनि से निर्धारित होती है।

बैक्चू, बौद्ध धर्म में एक केंद्रीय व्यक्ति, शिक्षाओं के सार का प्रतीक है। बैक्चू शिक्षाओं के सार का प्रतीक है, एक अवधारणा जो हृदय सूत्र की शिक्षाओं के केंद्र में है। बैक्चू को दो उस्तादों द्वारा पकड़ा जाता है, जो इसे पकड़कर ताजू नृत्य करते हैं। यह शून्यता के सिद्धांत की प्राप्ति का प्रतीक है, जो हृदय सूत्र का मूल है। ताजू नृत्य में बौद्ध धर्म के सिद्धांतों के बारे में जागरूकता प्रदर्शित करते हुए, ताजू छड़ी के साथ बैक्चू के ऊपरी हिस्से को थपथपाना शामिल है। कमल का फूल, जो मामलों की उचित स्थिति का प्रतीक है, भी शिक्षाओं का एक प्रमुख पहलू है। सम्ह्योन्युकगाक का मुख्य संगीत दो चरणों की उपलब्धि का संकेत देने के लिए गूंजता है। तीसरा उयोजब और ताजू नृत्य, ग्वोनबन (勸飯), सत्य की प्राप्ति का प्रतीक है, यह दर्शाता है कि कोई अभी तक इसे सीखने के चरण तक नहीं पहुंचा है। अन्य उस्तादों द्वारा प्रस्तुत तितली नृत्य, सही सिद्धांतों की प्राप्ति का प्रतीक है, जैसे नदी पार करने के बाद बेड़ा छोड़ देना। तितली नृत्य के बाद किया जाने वाला बार नृत्य, आत्मज्ञान प्राप्त करने की खुशी का प्रतीक है।

•विशेषताएं और महत्व:

ताजुचम की नृत्य गतिविधियाँ इतनी नीरस हैं कि उन्हें नृत्य नहीं कहा जा सकता है, लेकिन उनमें एक अद्वितीय धार्मिक अनुष्ठान नृत्य की विशेषताएं हैं जो विनम्र और प्रतीकात्मक आंदोलनों के माध्यम से ज्ञान की ओर बढ़ती हैं। केंद्र में अष्टांगिक पथ के प्रतीक बैक्चू के साथ, ताजू के शरीर की हरकतें और नृत्य की चालें आत्मज्ञान की ओर कदमों का प्रतीक हैं, जो बौद्ध धर्म के अभ्यास और खुशी पर फटकार और प्रतिबिंब को प्रकट करती हैं।


बलवू की पेशकश, जिसमें बौद्ध धर्म की भावना शामिल है (गू मि-राय, सियोल मेट्रोपॉलिटन सरकार का इतिहास और सांस्कृतिक विरासत विभाग, 2014), येओंगसंजे (सांग-ह्योन सिम, राष्ट्रीय सांस्कृतिक विरासत अनुसंधान संस्थान, 2003), और स्थापना पर एक अध्ययन और येओंगसन-जे के निर्माण के संस्कार (सांग-ह्योन शिम, विडुक विश्वविद्यालय डॉक्टरेट थीसिस, 2011)।

Sumaira Rahman
24 Nov 2023
Views 21

Topic: World Institute of Kimchi (Wikim)

Writer: Sumaira Rahman, Rokhsona Mondal, Madhumita Bodak, Aritra Mandal

Academic Field of Study: Humanities and Social Sciences

Short Explanation of the Article: This article provides information about the World Institute of Kimchi of South Korea. The structure of the institute along with its Missions and Functions is mentioned here. Furthermore, the Roles and Responsibilities carried out by the institute with the help of its advanced technology are also described in this article.


The World Institute of Kimchi was established by the government of South Korea in the year 2010. It strives to accelerate the expansion of the Kimchi enterprises by developing essential technological advances, as well as to establish South Korea as the mother nation of Kimchi by emphasizing the scientific and cultural brilliance of Kimchi to nations around the globe.

Institute Structure

A government-sponsored research institute tied with the Ministry of Science and ICT's National Research Council of Science and Technology.

Grounds for Establishment

  • Article 13 of the Kimchi Industry Promotion Act (World Institute of Kimchi)
  • Article 8 of the Act on the Establishment, Operation, and Fostering of Government-funded Research Institutes in the Field of Science and Technology (Establishment of Research Institutes).


  • Conduct studies and ventures to improve Korea's reputation as the origin of kimchi and create a worldwide kimchi culture.
  • Create high-quality Kimchi goods using a system which includes ingredients, production techniques, microorganisms and fermentation, storage, distribution, packaging, and sanitation and security.
  • Research & Development on integration and technological innovation for the kimchi industry progress (kimchi production sector and other related sectors).
  • The discovery and enhancement of kimchi's scientific brilliance.
  • Development of ideas, marketing assistance, and marketing campaigns to foster kimchi exports and localization in foreign nations.
  • Aid SMEs with expertise in kimchi production sector challenges, development, and more.
  • Designing and managing an inventory and web of data, figures, and logical & cultural resources with the goal of developing a kimchi culture.



  1. Upper Role (Source) - [Kimchi Fermentation Biotechnology] 

                               1-1. Kimchi Fermentation Control Technology Development.

                               1-2. Experimental Verification of Kimchi's Nutritional Quality.

       2. Upper Role (Sector) - [Kimchi Sector’s Modernization]

                               2-1. Market Competence Improvements in Technology within the Kimchi Sector.

                               2-2. The enhancement of technology for the preliminary processing of the Kimchi Quality


       3. Upper Role (Public Involvement) - [Conversion of Kimchi's price into assets]

                               3-1. Development and Implementation of Kimchi Science Sources.     

                               3-2. Value maximization and internationalization of Kimchi heritage.


Fundamental Skills:

  1. Growth of Kimchi Quality Improvement yeast as well as commercial Kimchi yeast supply unit.
  2. Kimchi Operational Components Exploration as well as Analysis Systems.
  3. Services for Improving the Taste and Fairness of Kimchi.
  4. Developing and utilizing Kimchi Investigation Resources and Data Facilities.
  5. Creation and functioning of a Kimchi Cultural Content Development System in accordance with technological, historical, and cultural analysis.

Function Execution Approaches:

  1. R&D Innovation in Techniques.
  •  Creation of a framework for preparing and carrying out R&D that is based on organization aims.
  • The development and execution of a venture selection and evaluation process designed for R&R.
  • Enabling a system for transparent cooperation.

      2. System-focused Administration Performance

  • Innovative Approaches to Talent Development and Implementation Systems.
  • Installation and activation of a sensory-based complete environment development structure.
  • Growth in corporate society to boost WiKim's confidence.

      3. The Practical Implementation of and Collaboration of Research Results

  • Developing and Reinforcing the Framework for IP Use and Distribution.
  • Improving Demand-Driven Business Assistance via Innovative Technology in the Business Assistance System.
  • Promoting Kimchi Culture Content in accordance with Research Findings and boosting up of the International Network.


AEMP Article File:

Sumaira Rahman
24 Nov 2023
Views 18

Topic: Ministry of Environment of Korea (Water Resources, Land & Waste)

Writer: Sumaira Rahman, Rokhsona Mondal, Madhumita Bodak, Aritra Mandal

Academic Field of Study: Science and Technology

Short Explanation of the Article: This article sheds light on the Ministry of Environment of South Korea. The main focus of this article is on the functions of the Ministry of Environment in regard to managing Water Resources and Land & Waste through a well-defined management system and infrastructure. 


The Ministry of Environment (환경부) is a South Korean government body that is responsible for ecological preservation. The Ministry was established, on January 3, 1990. Sejong City serves as its headquarters.


Integrated Water Resources Management:

Preserving clean water in lakes and rivers, and simultaneously guaranteeing a steady supply of water for all citizens, is a crucial mission of the Government of Korea. Korea improved its national water management system in the year 2018, from a ministry with split up responsibilities to a unified system, having the Ministry of Environment as the only authority. The aim is to accelerate the administrative efficacy in order to rescue. Low-cost, equitable and sustainable utilization of the country’s restricted water resources. As stated by the new Framework law on Water Management, every ten years, Korea will develop a national water management plan, which will identify policy goals and clear-cut measures on comprehensive water issues, including water resources, water quality, water-related disasters, conflicts and water-related issues in the water sector.  

The first National Water Management Plan was to be developed in 2020.

 Pollution Control: 

In order to safeguard and enhance the quality of the nation’s river water, Korea implemented the Total Water Pollution Load Management System (TPLMS) in the year 2004, at the river basin level. Targets are established by the system for water quality in each river basin, to determine how much pollution must be released to meet those targets. It assigns allowable releases to each local government and tracks compliance in order to determine if special measures, such as development restrictions are necessary. In the next phase of the TPLMS, four major river basins in supposed to have new water quality goals which were to be announced in 2019. Strict regulations cover 51 parameters used to manage the wastewater and industrial wastewater discharged from treatment facilities. In order to safeguard pure river water and robust ecosystems, Korea keeps enforcing effluent management regulations by introducing new guidelines and broadening their application. Apart from the individual and sewage effluent from point resources, 66.4% of pollution in Korea’s four main rivers originates from diffuse resources. The management of Non-Point Source (NPS) water pollution involves methodical approaches such as the establishment of NPS central areas and legal requirements for large-scale development projects to install pollution reduction facilities.

 Water Source:

In Korea, 99.1% of the population has access to water supply amenities as a result of decades of efforts to build out waterworks installations and the service network. However, a gap between urban and rural areas still exists, that has to be closed. Korea is capitalizing more on developing water delivery services, the current emphasis being on vulnerable regions such as rural communities. Simultaneously, a national project to revamp outdated water infrastructure and pipes is under progress. By introducing smart technologies like automated water treatment and real-time measurement and analysis, Korea's national water grid is developing towards greater durability, security, and efficacy.

 Disaster Mitigation:

Korea has been witnessing more intense, concentrated, and erratic rainfall patterns as a result of the consequences of climate change. In order to safeguard the citizens from water-related calamities, Korea is attempting to maximize the use of modern technology and information networks. For example, the four main river Flood Control departments acquire meteorological and hydrological data, assess flood threats, create forecasts, and broadcast real-time flood alerts from 60 locations around the country.

Conflict Resolution:

One of the main concerns of Korea's water management plan has been resolving the disputes between the urban and rural regions as well as between upstream and downstream reaches. Water consumption costs, which are obtained by tap water consumers downstream and then utilized for welfare and water purity enhancement, are one of the legislative instruments adopted for tackling the disparity.




The most modern waste handling system in the world is located in Korea. Two of the main pillars of the nation's waste management strategy are a decades-long segregated disposal system for recyclables and volume-based disposal levies for general and food waste. Manufacturers of goods are required by Korea's Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) program to accumulate and recycle the scraps that come from their goods. The use of single-use items, like beverage cups in cafes and grocery bags in supermarkets, is subject to ever-tougher regulations. The use of single-use items, like beverage cups in cafes and grocery bags in supermarkets, is subject to ever-tougher regulations. Construction sites generate half of Korea's overall waste output. The maximum recycling of construction wastes is facilitated by the mandate that recycled materials be utilized in both public and private construction projects. Policies that govern resources for their entire life cycle have recently been adopted and enforced to create a sustainable economy in which resources are repurposed and reclaimed rather than found in a landfill. Companies that produce a substantial amount of waste are assigned a specific recycling goal to achieve, and items must be convenient for recycling from their inception. In 2017, each Korean citizen generated 1.02 kilograms of household waste per day, which was only one-third of the amount generated in 1991. During the same period, the rate of waste recycling in Korea rose to 86%.

Targets and Indicators:

Plastic waste is a serious concern that is prioritized in Korea, as it is across the globe. Korea seeks to recycle 70% of its waste plastic by 2030 and cut plastic waste by 50%. A set of legislative initiatives was released in 2018 in the context of the Comprehensive Measures of Waste Recycling, and they are to be applied in every phase of the resource cycle, including manufacturing, consumption, disposal, accumulation, segregation, and recycling.

  • Consumption: Implement sustainability guidelines for shipping or postal packages. Expand the groupings and quantity of corporations that must abstain from single-use plastics. Korea’s goal was to reduce the use of plastic bottles and containers by 35%, by the year 2022.
  • Disposal: Providing user-friendly guidelines and smartphone apps, to assist individuals in learning and practicing the proper ways to segregate recyclables and dispose of garbage. Enable households and local governments to manage garbage at a local level.
  • Manufacturing: Examine the recyclable nature of all packaging products, such as PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) bottles, since different manufacturers are required to pay separate recycling fees. Goals were set to substitute transparent plastic beverage bottles, for all coloured ones by 2020, as they are cheaper to recycle.
  • Recycling: Increase the number of plastic products examined by the EPR scheme. Promote the recycling sector to operate steadily by keeping a check on costs and taking initiative. Increased funding for innovative recycling technologies.


AEMP Article File:

Ahana Chakraborty
24 Nov 2023
Views 22



ACADEMIC FIELD OF STUDY : Humanities And Social Science 

SHORT EXPLANATION OF THR ARTICLE : The Korean Film Council is a public institution established to improve the quality of Korean films and promote them and the film industry, a role entrusted by the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, the ROK government.

KoBiz Website (Korean Film Biz Zone)

FILM & PEOPLE : Databases of Korean films, film industry professionals(cast & crew), upcoming films, and Korean film companies.

NEWS & REPORTS : In-depth coverage of Korean cinema, featuring the latest Korean film news, industry and box office reports, as well as interviews with industry professionals and sneak previews of upcoming films. Updated daily

PUBLICATIONS : ‘Korean Cinema Today’, ‘Newsletter’, ‘Books’, ‘Korean Shooting Guide’, and ‘Brochures’

KoBiz Available Across all Mobile Platforms and on SNS

Catch up with KoBiz anytime, anyplace! Whether on your desktop, android, iPhone, or iPad, KoBiz is conveniently made accessible across all mobile devices.

Active across all major social media, KoBiz is the best real-time resource for Korean cinema. Connect with us via Twitter, Facebook, YouTube to stay updated on the latest news in the industry.


The Korean Film Council is a public institution established to improve the quality of Korean films and promote them and the film industry, a role entrusted by the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, the ROK government.

Over the years, Korean films grew tremendously; a film market of 2 trillion won, 0.2 billion moviegoers per year, and more than 50% of the market share. Movies became one of the representative public art genres of Korea. And now, the audiences from all over the world including Asia are enthusiastic about Korean films. Marking the centennial anniversary of Korean movies in 2019, the Korean Film Council intends to make a new leap forward. We will prepare various planning, development, and production support projects which can strengthen capabilities to create Korean films and establish the foundation for growing together with Asian films to lead the world market. We will also build a sound industrial environment for the rapidly changing online market, politically respond to resolve the market structure of oligopoly and establish matured conditions and working environments for creating and enjoying films. In the future, the Korean Film Council will continue to make progress toward boastful Korean films in the world that our people love.

About KOFIC Projects

Support for Planning and Development

We support projects for planning and developing Korean movies provides to writers, directors, producers, production companies, etc. to expand production opportunities of various genres and materials of movies.

Supporting Distribution

We promote diversity of film culture and spreading of the value of films by expanding the foundation for distributing independent and art films and nurturing various film festivals.

Supporting Overseas Expansion

We support Korean film’s participation in overseas film festivals and projects, promote them comprehensively, and provide biz-matching services on the ground.


Make-up and hairstyling are frequently cited last when discussing the technicians who make films possible, despite the fact that they are an important cog in the machine. Song Jong-hee, a brilliant makeup artist based in Seoul, has played an important role in bringing Korean characters to life on film. After making her debut in Kill the Love (1996), this self-taught technician built a reputation working with notable Korean New Wave filmmakers such as Bong Joon-ho, Park Chan-wook, and Lee Chang-dong. She was one of the rare people in her area who would become involved in the pre-production stage, giving her own ideas based on the screenplay while the characters had yet to be firmly established. She now works as part of the cosmetics and hairdressing company Mimos, which she founded alongside Jang Ju-eun and Lee Yu-sun, after taking a sabbatical in2009 to study at the Vancouver Film School.

According to her, the objective of her profession is to bring an actor's face under a new light, to find a way to make them look like nothing that has come before, all the while never eclipsing or squandering the character in the plot. It comes as no surprise then that she often bemoans the fact that, because of time limits or scope constraints, too often in TV series or films the actors are dressed like the stars they are rather than the characters the yare meant to depict. As a result, she makes no concessions when it comes to applying herself the makeup and never lets the actors do it, since she considers it takes someone else’s eyes to achieve the appearance that has been deemed appropriate for the role. This is why, this week, we're revisiting eight films in which her contributions helped bring the characters to life, from the gritty Old Boy to the intriguing appeal of The Handmaiden.

Park has collaborated with Song on all of his projects since Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance ,including his most recent, Decision to Leave. In his classic thriller movie Old Boy, the main character Oh Dae-su, played by Choi Min-shik, has a wild and untamed haircut that make shim look as if he had just survived from an explosion, which aptly symbolizes the character's pent-up wrath and desire for retribution after years in captivity. Song Jong-hee's working approach was completely different from what it is now, but her rigorous attention to detail ensured that every strand of hair had a role in conveying Dae-su's anguished spirit, and it took her five hours to give it this disheveled appearance.

Lee Young ae's long hair and smoky eyes in Sympathy for Lady Vengeance (2005) by Park Chan-wook

In Sympathy for Lady Vengeance, Lee Young-ae's character, Geum-ja, a woman who was just freed from jail after being falsely convicted for the kidnapping and murder of a child, exudes an air of mystery with her striking look. Her long, flowing dark hair surrounds her extremely fair face, and her smoky eyes that fade to crimson provide her persona an air of mystery. This crimson hue emerges as a manifestation of her rage at times, yet at others it seems indistinguishable from eyes flushed red from sobbing. Song Jong-hee's artistry here was more than simply cosmetics; it created an iconic appearance for the ages while portraying Geum-ja's complicated and contradictory emotions as she executes her plan.

Kim Hye-soo's Fierce Lioness Mane in Hypnotized (2004)

In Hypnotized, Kim Hye-soo's portrayal of a married lady suffering from border line personality disorder after finding her spouse is cheating required a style that could clearly represent her dread of rejection. As a result, her outfit was meant to make a statement and catch the attention of others around her. On top of some daring fashion decisions, light foundation and sensual makeup adorn her face, while her long curly hair, resembling a lion's mane, appears to take on a life of its own as it dominates her entire appearance. This look, which was both gorgeous and showed a lady in complete control of her image, was the perfect approach to depict the character's power and authority, demonstrating how cosmetics and hairstyling can enhance a character's presence on screen.

Park Hae-il as an elderly novelist in Eungyo (2012)

Park Hae-il transformed into an older figure in the romance drama Eungyo, about a contentious relationship between an elderly author and a high school student. This was the first assignment for which Song, who had discovered a new interest in prosthetic makeup while studying in Vancouver, could put her new skills to the test. Almost no one before Song had the know-how to pull off such an effect, which Park Chan-wook bemoaned as restricting the narrative options. By aging Park Hae-il by 35 years without the use of VFX, Song performed a key contribution in the evolution of Korean cinema makeup.

Sul Kyung-gu as Kim Il-sung in My Dictator (2014)

For My Dictator in 2014, Song transformed Sul Kyung-gu into North Korea's founder and first leader Kim Il-sung, one of the most spectacular changes in his career. This narrative follows an actor who is hired as a stand-in for Kim in the 1970s so that the South Korean president may prepare ahead of the first inter-Korean meeting, only to become consumed by his character. Song's task for this job was twofold: she had to give Seol some facial traits that would make him appear like the late Korean leader, but she also had to age the actor because the second half of the film takes place two decades later. A great deal of care was taken to ensure that the silicon prosthetics used in the actor's neck, cheek bones, and forehead did not feel flimsy and matched the actor's natural skin tone. It would take five hours to complete the fitting process.

Kim Min-hee's asymmetrical beauty in The Handmaiden (2016) by Park Chan-wook

Lady Hideko, played by Kim Min-hee in The Handmaiden, hides her actual identity deep within her. As a young girl educated in a wealthy household in 1930s Korea, she is well-versed in occidental customs and arts but knows nothing about the world that stands just beyond her mansion. Her fashion reflects these features immediately. The decision was taken to give this character an asymmetrical bob, which was popular in the West at the time, as well as a pale foundation because she rarely had the occasion to stay in the sunlight. This gave her the appearance of a china doll or a woman trapped in a Renaissance painting, which ties to her character journey but also contrasts with her counterpart, the servant Suk-hee (Kim Tae-ri), who had a simpler hairdo and tanned complexion.

KO-pick: Occult movies to exorcise the heat

Demons and Mudangs

One of the stapples of horror films is the exorcism, or the ritual of expelling evil spirits from a person or a place. The fascination with this occult proceeding could already be found in ancient times, but it reached mainstream appeal in modern times with the release of The Exorcist (1973), whose influence can’t be overstated as it spawned countless sequels, remakes, and imitations. Its director, William Fried kin, just passed away on August7.

However, exorcism, just like evil spirits and possessions, is not only a Western phenomenon. Mudangs, or Korean performers of traditional divination rituals, have been exorcising ghosts for centuries. In recent years, Korean cinema and television have taken to the increasingly popular subgenre, with varying degrees of success and originality. Even

Kim Eun-hee, one of the most revered TV series screenwriters who had already ventured in horror fare with Kingdom (2019-2020), has recently tapped into exorcist stories with the drama series Revenant (2023). Currently available to stream on Disney+, it revolves around a young adult woman possessed by a demon and a Korean folklore professor who team up to try to solve a series of mysterious deaths. Meanwhile, theaters will welcome this September a Korean film that tackles the exorcism genre in Dr. Cheon and The Lost Talisman (2023) by Kim Seong-sik. Based on a 2014 hit webtoon wrote by Hooressha and drawn by Kim Hong-tae, Possession, it tells the story of a fake exorcist who has so faral  ways managed to give his clients what they wanted because he is extremely talented in reading people’s mind, until he has to deal with a real evil spirit.

If you are a fan of exorcism films, there is plenty of titles to look forward to, but you might also want to check out some older titles like these ones we have listed for you this week. Who knows, you might even find yourself possessed by their stories.

Ghost Sweepers (2012), by Shin Jung-won

Mudangs and exorcists of all religions and abilities have come from all across the nation in a tiny town that has been afflicted by an army of extremely fierce spirits and must work together despite their differences to discover the source of the curse. The film, which is a satire of the exorcism genre, mocks its clichés and stereotypes.

The Chosen: Forbidden Cave (2015), by Kim Hwi

This is a horror thriller film about a reporter who follows a mudang-turned-psychiatrist performing an exorcism, which leads them to investigate an intriguing cave on Jeju Island and a tragic chapter in history. This film was among the first in the second wave of exorcism films, and is best known today for his interesting approach to tackle the events of the Jeju Uprising.

The Priests (2015), by Jang Jae-hyun

This film, inspired by the Korean comic book of the same name, was the genuine beginning of what is known in Korea as "occult movies," or supernatural mystery thrillers. A group of Catholic priests tries to exorcise a terrible demon that has taken possession of a young adolescent. Exorcisms are performed by priests using a variety of methods and weapons, including holy water, crosses, swords, and firearms. Parasite sensation Park So-dam, in her breakthrough role, plays the infected girl.

The Divine Fury (2019), by Jason Kim

In this horror fantasy film, an MMA fighter discovers that his freshly acquired stigma tagrant him divine abilities, making him the only one capable of stopping evil forces at work. The only problem is that since his father died, he has harbored a resentment against the Christian God.

Svaha: The Sixth Finger (2019), by Jang Jae-hyun

A pastor famed for exposing cults is charged with studying the Deer Mountain Buddhist group. Meanwhile, the police discover that a girl's body has been buried in concrete, with atalis man in her mouth. This film, like The Wailing, made extensive use of both Christian and Buddhist themes to create a unique mood.


AEMP Article File :

22 Nov 2023
Views 20

Topic : The National Maritime Museum of Korea – Crown Jewel of the Country

Writer :  Tejaswini Rao

Academic Field Of Study : Humanities And Social Sciences – Anthropology - History

Short Introduction : The following article talks about the National Maritime Museum Of Korea a valuable resource that promotes an understanding and appreciation of Korea's maritime history and culture. Through its engaging exhibits, educational programs, and commitment to excellence, the museum serves as a beacon for maritime enthusiasts and scholars from around the world. It is an essential destination for anyone with an interest in the sea, ships, and the fascinating history of maritime Korea making it the Crown Jewel of the Country.

The National Maritime Museum of Korea – Crown Jewel of the Country

The National Maritime Museum of Korea is a fascinating institution located in the city of Busan, South Korea. It was established in July 9th 2012 and is dedicated to the rich maritime history of Korea. The museum showcases a wide variety of exhibits, artifacts, and interactive displays that highlight the country's maritime heritage, as well as its important role in the global maritime community.

The museum is housed in a modern and impressive building, which is itself a work of art. The architecture of the museum reflects the importance of the sea in Korean culture and history, with its unique design resembling waves and ships. The museum's location is also significant, being situated near the port city of Busan, which has been a hub of maritime activity for centuries.

One of the main attractions of the museum is its diverse collection of artifacts and exhibits. Visitors can explore the history of Korean shipbuilding, seafaring, and trade through a wide range of displays, models, and multimedia presentations. From ancient sailing vessels to modern naval technology, the museum provides a comprehensive look at the maritime achievements of Korea.

Let’s learn more about its permanent exhibits. The permanent exhibits include a Maritime Hall, Aquarium, Media Art Gallery, Navigation Hall.

  • Maritime Hall: Features different records, art, and daily objects, of the maritime culture from whale hunting to pearl crafts, modern fishing activities etc.
  • Aquarium: Houses 70 species of marine life which are rescued, protected, treated and taken care of at the aquarium.
  • Media Art Gallery: Allows the visitors to experience media content related to marine biology, maritime industry with 360° technology and a LED display making their visit a spectacle.
  • Navigation Hall:  shows the many ways people have
    travelled around the world through the development of ships,
    navigation tools, and navigational techniques. Giving insights about the evolution of maritime vessels and naval activities in Korea.

In addition to its permanent exhibits, the museum also hosts special events, temporary exhibitions, and educational programs. These activities aim to engage visitors of all ages and backgrounds, making the museum an ideal destination for families, students, and maritime enthusiasts.

The National Maritime Museum of Korea not only celebrates the past but also looks to the future. The museum's emphasis on modern maritime technology and research reflects Korea's ambition to remain a global leader in the maritime industry. By showcasing cutting-edge developments in shipbuilding, ocean exploration, and marine conservation, the museum aims to inspire the next generation of innovators and maritime professionals.

Overall, the National Maritime Museum of Korea is a valuable resource that promotes an understanding and appreciation of Korea's maritime history and culture. Through its engaging exhibits, educational programs, and commitment to excellence, the museum serves as a beacon for maritime enthusiasts and scholars from around the world. It is an essential destination for anyone with an interest in the sea, ships, and the fascinating history of maritime Korea making it the Crown Jewel of the Country.

Source :

22 Nov 2023
Views 18

Writer :  Tejaswini Rao

Academic Field Of Study : Humanities and Social Sciences (Sociology) - Tourism

Short Introduction : The following article gives information about the five royal palaces of Seoul .Seoul, the heart of South Korea, is not only the capital and largest metropolis in the Republic of South Korea but also the home to five grand royal palaces which were founded in 1395 and have withstood the test of times & wars for the last 500 years. Each palace holds its own unique significance and charm, showcasing different architectural styles and historical periods.

The Magnificent Royal Palaces of Seoul

Seoul, the heart of South Korea, is not only the capital and largest metropolis in the Republic of South Korea but also the home to five grand royal palaces which were founded in 1395 and have withstood the test of times & wars for the last 500 years. Each palace holds its own unique significance and charm, showcasing different architectural styles and historical periods.

  • Gyeongbokgung Palace is the largest and most iconic palace amongst all the five. Built in 1395 served as the main palace for several generations of Korean kings. One of its most breathtaking features is the Gyeonghoeru Pavilion, a beautifully crafted wooden structure that served as the site for royal banquets and important ceremonies. From ornate buildings to serene gardens one can experience both Korean history and nature by visiting this great palace.

  • Changdeokgung Palace which is a UNESCO World Heritage site was built in 1405 renowned for its picturesque gardens and elegant pavilions. The famous Huwon Secret Garden within Changdeokgung Palace is famous for its serene lotus ponds, meandering pathways, and hidden valleys.

  • Changgyeonggung Palace was first built in 1104. It is one of the oldest royal palaces in Seoul. Originally constructed as a private garden for the royal family, it was later transformed into a palace. Changgyeonggung Palace is notable for its simple yet elegant architectural style, which reflects the influence of both Chinese and Korean design traditions. The palace features beautiful gardens, tranquil ponds, and an array of pavilions and halls. One of the must-see attractions within Changgyeonggung Palace is the Myeongjeongjeon Hall, where the king's coronation and important state affairs took place.

  • Deoksugung Palace, which is known for its unique fusion of traditional Korean and Western architectural styles. The palace encapsulates a blend of historic Korean buildings alongside European-style structures. The most renowned building in Deoksugung Palace are Daehanmun Gate, Junghwamun Gate, Hamnyengjeon Hall. Seokjojeon, etc.

  • Gyeonghuigung Palace is located in the heart of Seoul. Gyeonghuigung Palace exudes the grandeur and charm of bygone eras. This Palace is known for its scenic natural landscapes, tranquil ponds, and historical pavilions. An impressive feature of this palace is the Honghwamun Gate, renowned for its beautiful wooden carvings. The palace also has a museum which has an impressive collection of Joseon Dynasty artifacts, offering visitors a deeper understanding of Korean history.

No amount of words would be able to portray the absolute beauty of these majestic pieces of art. They are the part of our cultural heritage which need to be cherished, and one can truly see the marvel in them when you visit these wonders in person.

Sources :


Diyasha Datta
22 Nov 2023
Views 28

Topic: Robotics and AI in South Korea: A Leap into the Future

Writer: Diyasha Datta, Shyambhavi Kaushik, Pradnya Sanadi, Anvee Sejwal [WB2]

Academic Field of Study: Science and Technology, Engineering and Technology, Information and Communication Engineering

Short Introduction: The following article gives information about the advancement of Robotics and Artificial Intelligent in South Korea. South Korea is the most automated country in the world with the highest robot density in manufacturing industries. The country’s robotics and AI development is led by large conglomerates like LG, Samsung, and Hyundai. The government has also invested heavily in the robotics industry. 



In recent years, South Korea has experienced notable growth and progress in the fields of robotics and artificial intelligence (AI). The nation is acknowledged as a pioneer in technology worldwide, and its developments in robotics and artificial intelligence are no different.

The development and deployment of these technologies have been extensively promoted by South Korea's Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT). To encourage development in these sectors, they have put in place a number of initiatives and plans. The aforementioned encompasses international partnerships, including the AI Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Singapore, which endeavors to set the bar for global digital technology standards.

The importance of AI and 6G technologies is emphasized in South Korea's national plan, and the country has created a roadmap for digital innovation that covers 5G, 6G, AI semiconductors, and AI.


South Korea's trajectory in AI and Robotics has been marked by significant growth, supported and developed by the government, propelling the nation to a leading position in global industrial robot usage. The robotics industry, valued at 6.29 Trillion South Korean Won in 2016, surged to 9.18T in 2020. The journey commenced with the development of the Exobrain system by the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), a ground-breaking advancement that demonstrated Korea's prowess in AI research.

As the world grappled with the COVID-19 pandemic, the demand for automated, contact-less services soared, amplifying the rapid adoption of robots across diverse industries globally. The 2021 World Robotics Statistics by the International Federation of Robotics revealed an average of 126 robots per 10,000 employees in manufacturing industries worldwide.

Initially prevalent in large and medium-sized enterprises, the use of robots in Korea has evolved, with more small-to-medium-sized companies now embracing robotic solutions due to enhanced user-friendliness and cost competitiveness.

To position AI as a key driver for the fourth industrial revolution, Korea developed a comprehensive AI strategy in December 2019, shortly after contributing to the negotiation of OECD AI Principles. With robust government support, South Korea is emerging as a global leader in harnessing trustworthy AI, boasting strong digital infrastructure, sound industrial capabilities, and rapid 5G adoption and commercialization. The nation's aspirations now extend to becoming a world leader in AI, solidifying its commitment to ongoing innovation in the field.

South Korea has made significant strides in the application of Robotics and AI in various fields. Here are some key areas where these technologies are being utilized:


South Korea leads the world in industrial robotics with 932 robots per 10,000 workers, showcasing a commitment backed by government funding to incorporate cutting-edge technology into manufacturing processes.


South Korea invests $250 million in developing service-oriented robots for healthcare, addressing the aging population. Renowned for surgical robots, the nation experiences a surge in healthcare robotics.


South Korea advances AI and robotics in logistics, hosting the headquarters of Geek+ for autonomous mobile robots. The nation supports robotics upgrades in retail, e-commerce, and apparel sectors.


In agriculture, South Korea pioneers AI and robotics with innovations like a barista robot for unmanned cafes. These technologies enhance efficiency, productivity, and innovation in farming practices.


South Korea, a global leader, integrates AI and robotics into the automotive sector with plans for fully autonomous vehicles by 2027. Industry giants like Hyundai contribute to the development of autonomous driving technology.


In tourism, South Korea employs robots at Incheon International Airport, offering autonomous assistance to travellers. AI and robotics create immersive experiences, supporting travel arrangements and enhancing hospitality services.


AI and robotics revolutionize South Korea's entertainment sector, from unmanned cafes to AI applications in film production and gaming. These technologies drive efficiency and innovation in creating interactive experiences.


The Defence Innovation 4.0 initiative aims to reduce casualties during conflict and address threats to the country by modernizing and strengthening the Republic of Korea (ROK) military’s response capabilities to an AI-based, manned and unmanned complex combat system. South Korea adopts AI and unmanned technologies in defence through the Defence Innovation 4.0 initiative, aiming to modernize military capabilities and enhance collaboration with the United States.


AI for Good:

MSIT partnered with ITU to foster AI solutions for global challenges like low growth, income polarization, climate change, and the COVID-19 pandemic.

Digital Strategy of Korea:

MSIT introduced the Digital Strategy of Korea, aligning with the New York Initiative, aiming to position Korea as a digital innovation leader.

Investment in R&D:

From 2023, Korea focuses R&D investments in six key digital technologies, including AI, semiconductors, 5G/6G communication, quantum, metaverse, and cybersecurity.

AI Infrastructure:

Intensive investment planned for next-gen technology, establishing world-class AI infrastructure like Neural Processing Unit, supercomputers, and hyper-scale AI models from 2023.

AI Legislation:

MSIT supports the amendment of new legislations, preparing for the digital era with acts like "AI Act" and "Digital Inclusivity Act."

Trustworthy AI:

MSIT's "Strategy to realize trustworthy artificial intelligence" includes 3 strategies and 10 action plans, striving for trustworthy AI accessible to everyone by 2025.

These initiatives underscore Korea's dedication to advancing AI and Robotics technologies, showcasing a comprehensive approach towards fostering innovation and ethical AI practices.


Trade figures reflect a country's global competitiveness. In 2016, South Korea showed a trade advantage in Mobility, AI, and Nanotechnology compared to the EU27. The country's total exports in advanced technologies were lower than the EU27, but it demonstrated strengths in specific areas.


The Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT) of South Korea and the Ministry of Communications and Information (MCI) of Singapore have signed an Artificial Intelligence Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to collaborate closely on AI. This collaboration aims to deepen the two countries’ digital partnership. The MOU is a milestone in digital partnership between the two countries, and will allow the exchange of AI technologies and experiences in promoting the responsible use of AI.

Under the MOU, Singapore’s Ministry of Communications and Information (MCI), Smart Nation and Digital Government Office (SNDGO), and InfoComm Media Development Authority (IMDA), will work together with the ROK’s MSIT to increase access to AI technologies and talent, link research and industry activities to support the commercialization of AI applications, strengthen the exchange of AI best practices, and support the alignment of AI governance frameworks.

In addition to this, the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST) in South Korea has partnered with a Singapore group to advance the development of Korea’s first artificial intelligence (AI) cluster town project, the AI Town Project in Gwangju. This project is a significant step towards the realization of a smart city powered by AI and Robotics.

These collaborations reflect the commitment of both South Korea and Singapore to advancing AI and Robotics technologies and their applications. They also highlight the importance of international cooperation in the development and application of these emerging technologies.



This article analyses China and South Korea's innovative development, focusing on the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in their economic growth post-COVID-19. South Korea's strong R&D spending and innovative history contrast with China's accelerating pace in AI research. Both countries, with proper support, have the potential to surpass current AI leaders.


The study employs systematic and dialectical approaches to analyze economic trends in innovative technologies, particularly AI, in China and South Korea. Quantitative indicators, comparison methods, media scanning, and crowdsourcing inform the analysis, relying on annual reference books, statistical data, articles, and monographs.

South Korea leads globally in R&D spending (4.3% of GDP in 2020) and boasts a robust patent system. However, the private sector's role in R&D is growing, exceeding public funding, particularly in projects related to the digital economy, robotics, blockchain, big data, 5G networks, and AI.


South Korea's AI Action Strategy:


Since the establishment of the Presidential Committee on the 4th Industrial Revolution in November 2017, the Korean government has initiated key strategies, including the AI R&D Strategy, Data Industry Activation Strategy, System Semiconductor Strategy, 5G+ Strategy, and Manufacturing Renaissance Strategy.


President Moon Jae-in's initiative aims to raise public awareness of AI's pivotal role, leveraging Korea's strengths in education and advanced ICT infrastructure to position the country as a global AI leader.


Korea envisions securing world-class AI competitiveness, enhancing economic vitality, and improving citizens' happiness. The strategy includes building an AI ecosystem, expanding utilization, and prioritizing people-cantered approaches.


AI Ecosystem: Enhance infrastructure, secure AI talent, and promote regulatory innovation for a global-leading AI ecosystem.

AI Utilization: Foster talent, diffuse technology, build a digital government, and establish an inclusive job safety network.

People-Cantered AI: Prioritize quality of life, life satisfaction, and cyber safety through global-level AI ethics.


  • Achieve a manufacturing value-added rate of 30%.
  • Attain the world's third-largest digital competitiveness.
  • Open 45,000 types of big data.
  • Achieve 95% AI technology competitiveness.
  • Create a top-five regulatory environment.

Economic Impact :

  • McKinsey and KISDI estimate an economic effect of up to 455 trillion won through successful AI implementation.
  • Korea's AI strategy, focused on innovation, talent development, and ethics, aims to position the country as a global leader, fostering economic growth and societal well-being.


When considering the ethical implications of robotics and artificial intelligence (AI) in South Korea, several key aspects should be considered. While South Korea is known for its rapid technological advancements and widespread adoption of AI and robotics, it is essential to ensure that these technologies are developed and deployed ethically. Here are some ethical considerations for robotics and AI in South Korea:

1) Privacy Concerns:

South Korea, like many other countries, faces challenges related to privacy concerns in the age of AI. The collection and use of personal data for AI applications should be done transparently, and individuals should have control over their data.

2) Transparency and Accountability:

Developers and companies involved in AI and robotics should be transparent about the algorithms and decision-making processes behind their technologies. In case of errors or unintended consequences, there should be mechanisms for accountability.

3) Bias and Fairness:

Ensuring fairness and mitigating bias in AI algorithms is crucial. South Korea should strive to eliminate biases in AI systems to prevent discrimination, particularly in areas such as hiring, lending, and law enforcement where biased algorithms can have significant societal impacts.

4) Job Displacement and Reskilling:

The widespread adoption of robotics and AI may lead to job displacement in certain sectors. Ethical considerations should include efforts to reskill the workforce, ensuring that people can adapt to changing job markets and have access to new opportunities.

5) Social and Economic Inequality:

The deployment of AI and robotics should not exacerbate existing social and economic inequalities. Policymakers should consider measures to ensure that the benefits of these technologies are distributed equitably across society.

6) Autonomous Weapons and Military Applications:

There should be careful consideration of the ethical implications of developing autonomous weapons and military applications of AI. Clear guidelines and regulations should be in place to prevent the misuse of these technologies.

7) Public Engagement and Education:

Ethical considerations should involve the public in decision-making processes regarding the use of AI and robotics. Public awareness and education programs can help people understand the implications of these technologies and contribute to shaping ethical guidelines.

8) International Collaboration:

Given the global nature of AI development, South Korea should actively participate in international collaborations to establish ethical standards and guidelines. This includes sharing best practices, addressing common challenges, and ensuring a cohesive global approach to AI ethics.

9) Environmental Impact:

The environmental impact of AI and robotics, including energy consumption and electronic waste, should be considered. Sustainable and eco-friendly practices should be encouraged in the development and deployment of these technologies.

10) Legal and Regulatory Framework:

South Korea should establish and enforce a robust legal and regulatory framework for AI and robotics. This framework should address ethical considerations, data protection, and accountability to ensure responsible development and use of these technologies.


The Digital Innovation Roadmap by South Korea's Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT) outlines a strategic plan to become a global leader in AI and Robotics by 2030. Focused on six key digital technologies, including AI, semiconductors, 5G/6G communication, quantum, metaverse, and cybersecurity, the roadmap prioritizes R&D investments from 2023. Emphasizing public-private collaboration, it aligns with international standards through initiatives like the AI MoU with Singapore. Integrated into the broader Digital Strategy, this roadmap underscores Korea's commitment to advancing AI and Robotics for global leadership in the digital era.


South Korea, at the forefront of AI and robotics, exemplifies a commitment to innovation with robust government support and strategic initiatives. From pioneering AI strategies to fostering ethical considerations, the nation aims for global leadership in technology, evident in its Digital Innovation Roadmap. With a focus on public-private collaboration and international partnerships, South Korea positions itself for a prominent role in shaping the future of AI and Robotics by 2030.



AEMP Article File:

Ahana Chakraborty
22 Nov 2023
Views 18

TOPIC : Korean Broadcast Advertising Corp (KOBACO)

WRITER : Ahana Chakraborty [WB1]


SHORT EXPLANATION : KOBACO innovates the advertisement industry as a leading public media representative.



An advertiser can place an advertisement through a direct contract with KOBACO or through an advertising agency.

The details are as follows:

01 Consultation → 02 Preparation of broadcast advertising materials → 03 Purchase of broadcast advertising → 04 Broadcasting & Monitoring → 05 Payment

01. Consultation for broadcast advertising

After meeting with your assigned advertising consultant, an effective media plan for your products and services . will be established, based on consumer lifestyle analysis and a variety of media data, after meeting with n. Other information needed such as program schedules and price tables of broadcasters is also provided.

02. Preparation of broadcast advertising materials (CF)

Once advertising materials are produced, they are required to pass the review of the Korea Broadcasters Association before airing.

03. Purchase of broadcast advertising

There are various ways to buy broadcast advertising: up-front, regular, temporary, etc. You can select the right ones for your campaign through consultations with assigned advertising consultant.

04. Broadcasting and monitoring

The advertisement is broadcast according to your specifications and the purchase agreement,  its execution is monitored by a computer system. If the advertisement is aired more or less than the planned amount due to a sudden change of schedule or other circumstances, final advertising fees can be changed.

05. Broadcasting and monitoring

If an advertiser has purchased advertising through an advertising agency, the advertiser can make the payment according to the method decided with the agency.
(If an advertiser has purchased advertising directly from KOBACO, payment is required prior to transmission.)

Types of Advertising

KOBACO has performed various kinds of research projects, which are arguably the essential assets for broadcast advertising sales, so as to develop diverse marketing solutions that can be applied to areas from the production to the placement of an advertisement. KAI, MCR and PEI are representative cases of such research.

  • Program Ad(CM) : the advertisements of the sponsors of a program that are aired before and after the program
  • Station Break Ad (SB) :advertisements between programs
  • Subtitle Ad : advertising subtitles that appear on the lower part of the screen during schedule notices and broadcaster identification notices.
  • Time Signal Ad : advertisements that are aired with time signals
  • Product Placement(PPL)* : advertising of a product by placing it as a prop in a broadcast program to get exposure
  • Virtual Ad* : advertising by adding virtual image into a broadcast program through computer graphics.
  • Advertising within programs

Sales Formats

KOBACO offers various options to buy advertising including Up-front, Preemption, PIB Designation so that our clients may maximize the efficiency of their media purchases.


A long-term advertising package for more than six months. One can buy a package in March or September, and the broadcasting of the purchased advertising starts in April or October respectively.


Sales of the remaining inventory after up-front sales by month(1~5 months)

GRPs Guarantee

This is a program for those who buy the regular option to guarantee the gross rating point (GRP), which is agreed on by an advertiser and KOBACO, for the duration of the contract.
(Compensation Program for Spot Alteration)

Remnant Inventory

Sales of the remaining inventory after regular options have been exercised for a term shorter than one month.


Sales of previously designated programs ads and SBs to the highest bidder on a monthly basis at 80% of the standard price or higher

Designation of Position in Break

An advertiser can designate the slot in which the ad airs with a fee (per month) which is 10% or more of the standard price.

* The format of sales may be different for each media.


Please contact our KOBACO sales teams for detailed rates and pricing options.


KOBACO, since its establishment in 1981, has been selling terrestrial broadcast advertising. For those years, it has contributed to the stable supply of financial resources for broadcasting corporations and has protected the public-service nature and the diversity of broadcasting. KOBACO was reborn as a government-funded public corporation on May 23, 2012. As a result, the area that KOBACO covers as a media representative has expanded from the previous terrestrial broadcasting to new media such as cable TV, satellite TV and IPTV. It also took on new tasks to promote the advertising industry, such as measuring advertising effectiveness, building and operating a fundamental advertising distribution network, and surveying and verifying audience share.

To achieve its vision of becoming an ‘Industry-leading Public Media Rep’, KOBACO is striving to reach its three major goals: to be ‘a forward-looking leader that guides the balanced development of the advertising industry’, ‘a specialized media rep with comprehensive media solutions’ and ‘a public-interest company that fulfills its social responsibility’..

As a government-affiliated public corporation, KOBACO runs various projects to drive the substantive development of the advertising industry.

Advertising Museum

KOBACO operates the biggest advertising museum in the country where one can take a look at the 100-year history of advertising in our country. It consists of eight
exhibition halls, including
Origin of Advertising’,
‘Socio-cultural History of Korea through Advertising’,
‘Advertising that moves the World’,
‘Production of Advertisements’ and ‘Experiencing Advertising’.

KOBACO Training Institute

This is a professional training facility that is used by about 60,000 people per year including journalists, advertisers and those from advertising agencies. It is located on the beautiful riverside of Namhangang and equipped with cutting-edge education facilities, various sports facilities and top-quality lodging facilities.

Advertising Library

Founded in 1987, the Advertising Library is the largest advertising data bank housing an extensive collection of domestic and foreign books, masters and doctoral theses, research reports and statistical data, periodicals and advertisements.

Advertising Research Institute

The Advertising Research Institute is the only research institution specializing in advertising. With the vision of being a ‘Think Tank for the Korean Advertising Industry’, it performs research projects on diverse subjects every year and contributes to the specialization and globalization of the advertising industry of our country.