Sucheta Adhikary
24 Oct 2022
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  1. Topic: Housing System and House Warming in South Korea
  2. Writer: WBT2 (English Sub Team: Diyasha Datta and Sucheta Adhikary)  


Wikipedia: Housing System and House Warming in South Korea

South Korea has successfully made into the list of nations that witnessed the most rapid urban transformations in the human history. Comprehending the ensuing urban morphology and the changed inter-personal relationships in the modern city requires understanding the evolutionary phases of the different housing systems that emerged as a result of modernization. After the initial adaptation of the traditional urban house and the early modern developments, the apartment building became the prevailing housing typology in South Korea. Three important aspects have influenced its success. Firstly, the location of the tanji or the collective housing blocks in the city in contrast to the European system where the hosing blocks are located on the outskirts. Second aspect is given as the use of high-quality standards for the construction of apartment buildings that were oriented towards the rising middle-class and not the lower strata of the society. And lastly, unlike in Europe where the vernacular place was seen as a privileged spot, the remaining low-rise residential areas in Korea suffered from a lack of urban and architectural quality and came to be seen as unattractive to the majority of the population. People in Korea began to see apartment buildings as a symbol of modern life and a highly desired product. Nevertheless, apartment buildings still continue to be considered as the best and most convenient preference among all other housing options because of the optimal space and feasibility it serves. In this way, a global architectural typology has been locally conditioned in both its spatial adaptation and in its political application, determining the success of a housing type that has been disparaged elsewhere.

The cities of contemporary South Korea are landscaped by a unique display of sky-scrappers and modern apartment complexes that are home to millions of residents including both native and foreign inhabitants. These housing complexes exhibit omnipresence in their monotonous manifestations that embody and symbolize the dreams and aspirations of the Korean populace. The housing system and the architectural forms have evolved in line with the traditional culture of South Korea that revolves around various social, cultural or religious beliefs. For instance, the number four is seen as unlucky in Korean culture, that explains why elevators in South Korea are designed with the character "F" instead of the number "4" to denote the fourth floor. With the advancement of modern housing and architectural systems, South Korea is not an exception to the widespread adoption of serial mass housing at par with the other emerging nations. Historical speaking, Korea's traditional urban habitations predate the current contemporary metropolis, which has been growing since the 1960s.The decade in which the urbanisation process was thought to have attained its complete maturity was the 1980s. The mass dwelling typology is believed to have greatly aided the urban transformation of the South Korean housing system.

Korea has a peculiar system of housing which is really hard to find in other countries. It is an obvious requirement and desire for any person living in any country to be able to live in a well-furnished house that is able to satisfy ones needs. In such circumstances, renting a house is considered to be the most prevalent and feasible housing alternative if owning or building a home is beyond one’s affordability limit. In most countries, when people choose to rent a house, they are required to pay a minimalistic rent fee every month to the house owner. This is the most usual way all over the world. But strangely, the second choice in Korea is something quite different from the choice in other countries. Besides this main difference concerning the rent fee payment system, there are also other differences concerning the house structure.

For instance, most Americans who cannot afford to buy a home live in rented houses while making monthly rent payments. On the other hand, in Korea, most people who cannot afford to buy a house live in a leased house after depositing a certain amount of money to the lessor. The tenant incurs no additional costs while residing in the leased home if this deposit is paid in full. However, this is by no means a modest sum of money. In contrast to Koreans, who need a lot of money up front, Americans do not require as much money when signing a lease for a home. As a consequence, Koreans must bear the burden of paying the money back along with the interest to the bank. In this respect, the American system seems to be more attractive and convenient.  But there is also another thing to take into account. The Korean government permits the withdrawal of long-term loans for such purposes, at a low interest rate.

The government of the Republic of Korea has proposed a number of housing policies over the years to encourage improvement in the accommodation options on their territory. The eradication of housing shortages and the price stabilization have been the two main objectives of housing policy. The government has been working with the private sector to accomplish these goals while also creating the institutions and legal framework for the public sector, supplying developable land, and allocating housing units to the intended target populations. The nation's severe housing shortage has been alleviated, and general housing conditions have much improved, thanks to the consistent and massive provision of new housing, provided since the 1980s. Enhancing the housing welfare of low-income households and the poor has been added to housing policy aims since the turn of the new millennium. To achieve the new policy goal, the availability of public rental housing was increased, and a housing benefit was implemented, but more work needs to be done in this sector. Due to the nation's demographic and socioeconomic developments, the Republic of Korea now also faces new housing issues.

Housing typology development in South Korea

Initial Modernization: 

During the Japanese colonial era, the Korean Peninsula experienced its first significant modernization impact (1910-45). Even before Korea was annexed, Japan had put enormous pressure on the country. The first wave of urbanisation began in 1876, when Korea was compelled to abandon its long-standing isolationist policy. Five interior communities and ten port cities opened were opened for commercial use, creating new requirements for contemporary urban planning. Japan selected the colony of Korea as the centrepiece of its ambition to expand its empire imperialistically, since the early 1930s. This was followed by a subsequent rise in the construction and modification of various infrastructures nationwide.

In between the foundation (1394) and the colonisation era of Seoul, it did not undergo any significant spatial alteration. The "ordering of streets" urban policy, which began in 1910, changed the original street network by enlarging old thoroughfares and constructing new roadways. The major goal was simply to entirely change the traditional ideas of the original city by introducing economic and military elements to the way the urban area was organised. Prior to this, urban planning was based on a traditional oriental geomantic theory known as Pungsu, or Feng Shui in Chinese. This theory is a collection of theoretical guidelines based on the study of the wind and water. While the main urban fabric was based on a gridiron layout, there existed a maze of subsidiary arteries. According to a report, the space between the axis is described as, “Roads providing access to the houses branch chaotically, forming a convoluted maze of frequent dead-ends, all highlighting the essentially pedestrian nature of this network”. Afterwards, Seoul was remodelled in accordance with new contemporary urban principles that were initially put to the test in Tokyo before being applied to other cities like Osaka, Kyoto, Taipei, and Pyongyang. According to the City Ward Improvement Plans of 1912 and 1919, substantial new avenues were constructed and old roads were enlarged.

The 1920s saw more urban growth, but it is the 1930s that saw the emergence of the first modern planning laws, including the 1936 Gyungsung City Plan and the 1934 Joseon City Planning Act, which led to a significant enlargement of Seoul's boundaries. In terms of architectural advancements, new colonial Western Style structures, primarily public buildings and transportation amenities, were erected in the cities with the intention of strengthening colonial power. Due to the long-standing ties between Japan and the UK, the structures embraced neo-classical eclectic styles that were mostly influenced by Britain.

Fast Metropolitan Revolution:

One of the largest single country-to-city migrations ever recorded took place in Seoul following the Korean War (1950–1953). The "economic miracle of the Han River" in Korea spurted, and since the early 1960s, this region saw rapid demographic expansion. Seoul's uncontrollable urban growth had led to the preservation of the urban organisation introduced by the Japanese colonisers. Planned large-scale public works projects replaced the expropriation and destruction of ad hoc development. From 1961 to 1987, South Korea was governed by a military dictatorship, and under President Park Chung Hee's administration (1961–79), modernization was a top political priority. Massive economic expansion and harsh repression characterised this time period. President Park had a clear intention to use the urban transformation as a tool for social reform, introducing large scale population control in Seoul. Therefore, it was believed that the creation of enormous mass housing complexes, or ap'at'û tanji, was "a very effective tool for guiding and managing the social groups that have been at the core of South Korea's economic success."

Seoul implemented an urban growth management approach based on ring-radial roadway circulation, numerous centres, and green belts to handle an increasing number of new urban settlers. The Garden City and Western New-Town Planning concepts served as the foundation for the suggested urban design. The city's expansion was facilitated by the Comprehensive Development Plan that was created in 1966. It included thirteen radial arterials and four ring highways that were located at various distances from the city center. These routes' intersections were supposed to develop into subcentres. Following this came the 1972 National Development Plan, which included a new greenbelt system and was quickly overtaken by an unplanned development. The strategy also pushed new construction toward the Han River's south side, and the urban developments on both north and south banks of Han attained equivalence by the mid of 1930s. In 1989, five new big towns with a specified range of population densities were built: Ilsan, Jungdong, Sanbon, Pyeongchon, and Bundang. This was part of a larger decentralisation strategy. Songdo Smart City and Sejong Metropolitan Autonomous City are two recent examples of ambitious new town projects.

Features of Large-Scale Housing Complexes:

In this setting, modern apartment buildings expanded over both the city and the countryside to become the predominant housing form and, satiating the South Korean landscape. Serial construction methods "became the prevalent technology of mass housing over the world, and at the same time a stylistic principle of modern city planning," as noted by Florian Urban, a Professor of Architectural History and Head of History of Architectural and Urban Studies. Prefabricated high-rise structures made up less than 4% of South Korea's housing stock in the 1970s, but by 2000, that percentage had increased to a significant 50%. This was also accompanied by a decrease in the share of individual houses during the same time frame, dropping the percentage from 90% to an abysmal 25%. A Japanese corporation had built Korea's first apartment complex, the Mikuni Apartment in Hoehyun-dong, in 1930 to house its employees. In 1935, the construction of the second apartment building in Naejadong had been witnessed. Records indicate that the Yurim apartment, which was the first to be built for rental purposes, was constructed in the same year. However, none of these still exist.

After the liberation of Korea from Japanese colonisation, it was only in 1958 when the first apartment complexes of Korea were constructed. Between 1962 and 1964, the Korean National Housing Corporation (KNHC) constructed the Jongam apartments which comprised of three four-five storeyed high buildings and the first to be equipped with flush toilets. Another construction under KNHC during that time was the Mapo apartments that consisted of ten six-floor building, equipped with individual hot-water heating system. The Mapo apartments created a set of planning principles for the design of the tanji, the autonomous collective housing complexes comprising of at least 300 units with shared facilities. However, the formal laws that applied to the apartment buildings were determined later.

When the government passed the Housing Construction Promotion Act in 1972, the tanji or collective housing blocks expanded at an exponential rate. The Act encouraged the development of high-density residential zones within city boundaries and other newly designated areas after being revised and reinforced in the early 1980s. The tanji thus came to be described as a collection of large urban blocks that had slabs of monofunctional housing with a distribution of few commercial buildings and service amenities.

The Fordist construction technique, which builds residential slabs in a reinforced concrete structure using prefabricated components, was employed in the construction model. Slab Buildings having several vertical access points and a single-loaded corridor system with open corridor facilitating gallery access, became the primary construction types. The ridgeline of the structure that is typically oriented east-west on these slabs maximises solar exposure, leaving the north facade solely as a functional aspect that is aesthetically forgotten. These characteristics enabled the maximum land utilisation accompanied with lowest construction expense; however, it brought about a completely new environment that led to the disintegration of traditional family structures and social relationships. Even so, the apartments evolved into a sign of social prestige and a highly sought-after product that is still in trend. It has been observed that, the classic apartment layout is a fusion of several cultural influences that blends various unique interior designs.

According to prior analysis, the traditional layout of the apartments has been derived from the urban Hanok after being modified to spec house, where the madang (yard) has been incorporated as an internal space within the house and started to serve as a living room. Through Japan, the Western influences spread, bringing with them new construction techniques and new spatial arrangements. In the 1940s, the usual LDK floorplan system (Living, Dining, and Kitchen) was already being developed in Japan. It was later employed in Korea and has since then, become the standard design for contemporary Korean apartments. To merge the continuity and consistency of the traditional plan into the contemporary design, these influences were combined with the conventional floorplan to form a hybrid arrangement along with these foreign systems.

Theories of Hybrid Modernism for Korean Serial Apartments:

Examining the theories of the modern movement and the experiments created by the architects who rallied around the International Congresses of Modern Architecture (CIAM) can prove to be helpful in tracing the architectural references of the Korean contemporary apartment complex. The Congrès internationaux d'architecture moderne (CIAM), or International Congresses of Modern Architecture, was a group that was established in 1928 and disbanded in 1959. It was in charge of a number of gatherings and congresses that the most well-known architects of the time organised across Europe with the aim of spreading the Modern Movement's ideas in all the major areas of architecture (such as landscape, urbanism, industrial design, and many others). Among the projects organized by CIAM, the "The Functional City" (1933) project was an ambitious attempt to apply contemporary methods of architectural analysis and planning to the city as a whole, that took place following the two earlier CIAM conferences on "The Minimum Dwelling" (Frankfurt/Main, 1929) and "Rational Land Development" (Brussels, 1930). In particular, by codifying the paradigm of rigorous urban functional division, Le Corbusier's 1943 release of the Athens Charter prefigured Korean urban design.

The most avant-garde unfinished projects that have impacted many urban planners worldwide served as the inspiration for contemporary Korean development, especially, the ones established at the early 20th century by the greatest modern masters. With the plans for High Rise City in 1924 and Berlin's Gendarmenmarkt Square in 1927, Ludwig Hilberseimer, a German architect and urban planner, contemplated a repetition of similar residential structures organized in a rational geometric arrangement that was utterly detached from the surrounding environment and the existing content. Furthermore, the 1929 house plans by a German-American architect, Walter Gropius, demonstrate a clear scientific approach to the issue of large housing complexes. Le Corbusier's three major urban plans, Contemporary City for Three Million People (1922), Plan Voisin (1925), and The Radiant City (1933), ultimately served as the main inspiration for Korean architecture. His emphasis on height, light, and geometric order were seen as a solution to the unproductive and unhealthy metropolitan sprawl.

The American urban-planner, Clarence Perry's Neighbourhood Unit is another crucial notion that shaped how modern apartment complex development is characterized in Korea. The Neighbourhood Unit theory, which the American urbanist conjectured in 1929, effectively defined a residential block bordered by transportation arteries. The building is intended to be self-sufficient, housing all the services and providing amenities required to maintain the residents therein, including shops and other businesses. The Neighbourhood Unit would be built to house a population of between 3,000 and 9,000 people, which equates to 1,000 to 1,600 children in a primary school. Nonetheless, the residential structures were meant to be low-rise single homes and this urban project can undeniably be associated to The Garden City movement with respect to influence and impact, but it's interesting to note that the Korean tanji were meant to be built right in the centre of the city and in the new expansion areas, whereas the Garden City movement advocated urban dispersal as a response to the crowded urban centre. The final urban design chosen by Korean urban planners merged elements of the modernists' proposal for conjunct high-rise residential towers and slabs with Clarence Perry's Neighbourhood Unit. The real picture, however, portrayed that the tanji were not entirely independent, and the modern city is distinguished by a mix of high-rise and low-rise structures with clear functional distinctions. A distinctive political approach is sighted, while contrasting the 1950s-60s European plans with the Korean tanji and it is observed that the Korean high-rise flats were built within the existing urban regions and were targeted at the expanding middle class and upper-middle class, in contrast to the European projects, which were developed as "social housing" for the poor and situated on the outskirts of the city. In a similar vein, Korean housing was built on a policy of home ownership while social housing in Europe was intended to be rented.

Japan and the United States brought more direct influences to the Land of Morning Calm, which is directly or indirectly reflected in the housing styles. Japan was the only Asian nation to create the Metabolism architectural avant-garde, which had a global impact, and developed its post-war modernization process before Korea. South Korea, on the other hand, had developed a highly distinct corporation system that was characterised by the nation's massive building conglomerates (chaebol). Major housing projects are the tool used to control the real estate market, leaving only the small and middle-scale projects to more autonomous and progressive architectural firms. These large corporations played a key role in the urban and regional transfiguration and continue to do so.

Design of Houses in South Korea

The South Korean culture has developed alongside an eventful past that led to the development of various monuments and structures that align with several religious and social beliefs. The Land of Morning Calm has been ruled by various dynasties and colonised by other nations, witnessing wars, epidemics and adapting to various local and foreign cultures at different points of time in the history. The journey from the traditional Hanok to the high-rise buildings is a result of modification seeking convenience and meeting requirements. Everyday norms of eating, relaxing, and working, as well as industrialised production techniques and geographic conditions, all serve as inspiration for Korean architecture. Materials are used in an attractive way with Asian accents to embellish the buildings with a touch of their own culture. Some of the prevalent elements of Korean home designs are greenery, wide spaces, lots of windows, crystal doors and the presence of sunlight in key locations throughout the house.

Simplified L-shaped Korean House Design:

South Korea is a beautiful country located among the calm and magnificent mountains while the peninsula is surrounded by sea on three sides. The L-shaped house design is known to bring peace and tranquillity allowing an ideal environment for relaxation and recreation. Away from the hustle of a busy city life, these houses are mainly observed in the Korean highlands, the serene haven serving peace and comfort after a busy day of work. The traditional appearance is put up with a touch of Asian flair by incorporating ancient woodworks adorning the entryways and combining the sleek grey roof with the white walls. A wooden terrace surrounds the higher, somewhat elevated portion, which blesses the viewers with a splendorous spectacle. The perfect times to view this sight are in the early morning and just before sunset, when air circulates through all directions. The huge, modest, one-storey house is located away from the road and other commercial structures in a gabion-walled enclosure.

The pure elegance of Hanok:

The regular interactions Koreans have with nature taught them valuable life lessons. Everything, including where and how a residence should go, was carefully evaluated in light of the surroundings. Because of their closeness to nature, people constructed simple homes devoid of superfluous amenities. Hanok is a representation of the ideal relationship between people and nature. Since the Hanok has no ornamentation, a natural style is predominant. The building of this Korean home uses a variety of materials, including mud for the walls and floors, stone for the gudeul (the ondol's central heating system), and wood for the columns and maru. Clay keeps a Hanok warm in the winter and cool in the summer thanks to its inbuilt heating and cooling properties. The extensive usage of hanji, a paper made from the bark of mulberry trees, which is used to cover every solid surface, is another distinctive feature of a Hanok. Hanji has been used to cover doors because of its exceptional permeability and shielding ability, letting in natural light while still keeping the interior warm. Without opening any doors, air may circulate freely throughout the home thanks to intake vents in hanji walls. Compared to homes with glass walls, this is a major advantage.

Stunning Korean house design with a brick and wood frame:

These kinds of dwellings are fairly common in Korea. While brick has a rough texture and irregular patterns that are reminiscent of country homes, wood has a clean feel and crisp lines that are indicative of city life. These two seemingly unrelated landscapes are unexpectedly combined to create a modern Korean house design.

A certain area of the home may have innate landscaping. The house's size is divided by varying floor levels, which also enable it to mix in with the diverse architectural styles of the surrounding area. In this Korean home design, the living, dining, and kitchen spaces are all on the ground floor. On the upper level, there is a playroom, secondary bedroom, and the primary bedroom. There are two terraces outside; the front terrace provides views of the city, while the back patio provides access to the hills beyond. The house's façade features multiple windows to offer some isolation because it is situated on a busy location.

Open-air top flood house designs:

The families that reside in Korea's darkened rooftop houses with elevated mesh gables enjoy a tranquil outdoor area as well as a location for casual business gatherings. The top of the three-story building is decorated with decorative gables made of white corrugated metal and clear PVC panels. Clear plastic lets light in while the metal mesh screens it out to provide a comfortable environment. This third floor gets lots of sunlight and airflow because there is no dividing wall surrounding it. When the doors are opened, the steel and concrete structure of the house dangles up to form a guard rail and partial barrier. Metal beams that are fastened to the sides and down through the flooring support a steel roof. The garage and a distinctive pedestrian entrance, which is framed by an arched concrete slab, are both located on the lower level. A large, open living room on the first floor opens onto a terrace outside that is accessible through a set of stairs.

Korean home plans with concrete ridge ribbons:

This South Korean family home is surrounded by chamfered concrete walls, which results in a dynamic interplay of shadows. This Korean home design has two stories and is constructed to adapt to the area's topography between the highlands and the metropolis. To achieve a distinctive appearance, several materials including cement, stones, bricks, and wood are used.

The concrete bands that surround the house's exterior are its most distinctive feature. These free-form overhangs gently caress the hilly areas, harmonising with the nature much like Hanok roofs do. A few rooms extend to the northern and southern sides of the main hallway, which is very spacious and continuous in design. The main living room's large open window frames face south. The main family living quarters are located on the lower floor and consist of a two-storey lounge and a kitchen cum dining room that opens to the living room. On the upper floor, in addition to the master bedroom, there are three further bedrooms, a second living space, and a separate workstation. Each of these buildings, which are arranged in a row, is connected by a long hallway. This Korean building design makes significant use of glass partitions because they improve lighting transmission.

House designs for multiple generations:

This Korean multi-story home with a vented brick facade is home to several generations of the same family, all of whose apartments are built on top of one another. The six-storey structure occupies the entire space on the little plot of land it is situated on. The facades are cut away at various angles as the building climbs in height to accommodate lighting needs. The ground floor's front empty space of the house has room for the family's vehicles. The uniform brick façade of the home is broken up by openings in places where a certain level of isolation is sought, some of which are partially concealed behind a perforated brick foundation. Two families share the first and second-floor apartments, while a third family takes up the entire third floor, and the top two levels of the home are combined to form a fourth apartment. Three single-family houses are layered on top of one other to create an architectural style for each level that is suited for the lifestyle of each family. Each apartment has all the necessities for a home, but certain communal areas, like the kitchen in the first-floor house, are meant to be used by the whole family. A lot of the internal areas maybe expanded in use, and walls enable different parts to be partitioned into private rooms as needed. Mobility spaces are maintained to a minimum inside the apartments. The flat on the top level features an attic room with a pitch-like ceiling and a flight of open stairs connecting its storeys.

Types of Houses in South Korea:


The most luxurious alternative available to single Koreans is undoubtedly Officetel. "Officetel" is a unique term created from the English words “office" and "hotel." These are apartment-like buildings but their floor layout is designed to be a combination of office and living space. Large developers frequently construct it near the metro stations and on busy roads in commercial regions. It is commonly not secured by the residential renter protection law because it is designed to be a live-and-work space. The majority of these buildings are less than 10-15 years old because officetel is a relatively recent idea. Even though many inhabitants use it as their homes, the same floor can usually consist of a number of businesses, including a nail salon, a massage parlour, or a travel agency office operating simultaneously. Although, officetels provide the best room conditions among all the options available for single households, they are typically also the most expensive alternative. The majority of officetels are studio-style, whereas extremely infrequently, in 2 bed room style. The owner of an officetel usually allows their tenants that are a company or small business owners to register their company/business address using the officetel address. This is kind of cost-effective because the burden of renting a house and a separate office space is eased.


1.Officetels generally come with security system. They include a security guard and round-the-clock-surveillance equipment on the first floor.

2.It’s close to a lot of convenient stores and is situated in a good location, especially in the commercial districts close to subway stations and other facilities.

3. It is provided with some electronic appliances of daily use.


1. They cost much more than other alternatives such as one rooms or studio apartments and it includes the fees for using the elevator.

2. Apart from the housing price, other bills such as gas and electricity expenses also tend to e higher owing to the wider space occupied by officetels as compared to some other alternatives.

3. Officetels never come with an internet service which adds to our expenses of paying for the internet as well.

Ideal users:

 i) People who want to work from home

 ii) Freelancers

 iii) One-man businesses such as accountants, artists or fortune tellers

 iv) Common for students

 v) Ideal for newlyweds who wish to start off at an officetel and go for house upgradations slowly

Rent example
1) Hongik University Station vicinity
Deposit ₩10,000,000 / Monthly Rent ₩850,000 + Maintenance Fee ₩200,000
2) Gwanghwamun Station vicinity (near Gyeongbok Palace, main CBD area)
Deposit ₩10,000,000 / Monthly Rent ₩1,200,000 + Maintenance Fee ₩250,000

Hasokjib (boarding house) (하숙집)

Hasokjib is a kind of family house in which rooms are rented by different people. These houses have shared common areas, that is, shared kitchen, bathroom and living room. These places are usually run and maintained by the lady of the house who looks after the eating, cleaning and laundry requirements of the people living there. In many cases, it is also used as a boarding house where a woman runs a business or teaches while the students are given separate rooms in the hasokjib.


1.People living there don’t need to do their own household work because the lady or the ajumma of the house looks after those kinds of requirements.

2.It’s pretty affordable as it doesn’t require any big deposit to be paid in the beginning.

3.A good option for foreigners as they will be living with locals which gives them the advantage of learning about the Korean culture and language.


1.Hasokjib is a place where different kinds of people live together and most are strangers.

2.It can be a risk to privacy and feel uncomfortable.

3.Language and cultural barrier might be problematic in some cases.

Ideal users:

i)Usually students as these places are located near schools and colleges

ii)People who want a local experience

One-room/Studio Apartments (원룸)

A one-room apartment, or studio, is a compact building that consists of housing unit without a separate bedroom. Housing conditions are not as favourable since one-room structures or villas are typically constructed by private owners on a tiny plot of land. These structures are often constructed in three months by tiny, local home builders who make concessions like using sewage lines or thinner walls. These usually have a kitchenette, a stove, a washing machine, and many additionally include an air conditioner, a refrigerator, a desk, and sometimes even a bed. Before making any form of payment, it is required to negotiate whether "options" (furniture) are included by the contract. Here, the pay deposits rise upto atleast $5000-10,000. The rent can vary from $400 to 4800 which usually depends on the size and location of the apartment. Along with the deposits, these places require the buyers or tenants to find a real estate agent or a mediator in order to find a one-room housing. The contracts are usually for one year minimum. Realtors inquire whether or not, the person looking for a house is alright with "red brick buildings (빨간 벽돌집)" or "ancient structures (구옥)" because red brick buildings were popular in the 1990s. Older structures were constructed with care and have their own unique character while the newly constructed buildings emit Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and chemicals. The rent range can be fairly wide depending on the age of the structure and maintenance status.


1. They are fully furnished alongwith the provision of big appliances, AC, washing machines, stove, fridge and occasionally a microwave and a bed.

2. It allows privacy as it is not a shared house form.

3. It allows to bring in more guests if required.

4. Has a private kitchen that is good for people who enjoy cooking.

5. It is possible to get free internet in studio apartments sometimes.


1. The contract has to be for atleast one year which makes it compulsory to stay in Korea for a minimum of 12 months.

2. The rooms can extremely small and congested.

3. It is quite expensive.

4. It is required to pay commission to the real estate agent.

Ideal users:

 i) students

 ii) non-married working adults

Rent example
Hongik University Station vicinity
Deposit ₩10,000,000 / Monthly Rent ₩600,000 + Maintenance Fee ₩50,000


The Goshiwon is a very small single room closet or dormitory that can only contain a bed and a reading desk. Goshi refers to the national civil service examination. Goshiwon originally started out as a small room for students studying 16 hours a day for Goshi to sleep in an environment with no distractions. Building conditions are the worst in Goshiwon rooms since they are not considered housing units. While some apartments have private showers and toilets, some have common bathrooms in the hallway. Typically, the shower stall in an apartment is so small that taking a shower requires you to sit over the toilet. Noise can be an issue because the partitions between each unit are built of plywood. Additionally, there is poor air ventilation. Some apartments might even be windowless. Many international students opt to reside in Goshiwon despite these disadvantages. They are majorly situated around universities in Korea and are student-friendly in terms of cost. It's inexpensive and simply takes a deposit of one month's rent. Goshiwon is a commitment-free alternative to one-room, officetel, and two-room apartments, all of which often demand a one- or two-year lease and a sizable deposit. Additionally, it is outfitted with a bed, table, chair, refrigerator, TV, common washing machine, and is frequently provided with complimentary rice and kimchi.


1. It’s really cheap and requires paying a rent per month instead of submitting a large amount as deposit.

2. Goshiwon that cost a little bit more than the cheapest ones come with a shared kitchen that provides free rice, Kimchi or even Ramyeon.

3. The rent varies from $200/₩200,000 to $500/₩500,000 providing a wide range of options at a lower price.


1. These are extremely tiny places with no proper window and ventilation system.

2. A lot of these places are segregated by gender and the partitions between apartments are very thin which makes it difficult to bring in guests if required.

3. Although these houses provide with air conditioning and heating systems, they are non-adjustable which makes it difficult to control the temperature of the room.

Ideal users:

Students and people who don’t spend much time at home.

ii) People who only need a place to sleep.

Rent example
Hongik University Station vicinity
Deposit ₩500,000 / Monthly Rent ₩500,000

Apartment (아파트)

Population density in Korea is ten times higher than the world average. Cities with limited space have extremely dense populations, which results in an abundance of apartments. The Korean word "apateu (아파트)", which is derived from the English word "apartment," is used a little differently than it is in the United States or other countries. Apartments are huge buildings, usually over 5 storeys, with multiple rooms for living space that are typically constructed on expansive lots to create exclusive residential communities, allowing for each household to live independently. They are usually established, furnished, and equipped with utilities. Apartments for the larger segment of the population are generally 42.975 ㎡, 59.504 ㎡, or 82.645 ㎡ in size, but there are also luxury-size apartments with over 148.76 ㎡ in space. In most city areas, apartments use gas piped in from elsewhere for heating and cooking. The definition of an apartment in the US is the closest to a condominium. In Korea, being able to afford an apartment is a sign of accomplishment, so many young couples choose to put off getting married until they can afford one or rely on their parents to rent or buy one. Monthly rent (wolse) for apartments is less typical than Jeonse, with the refundable deposit ranging from 60 to 80 percent of the purchase price. It is also known to have highly secured parking spaces, playgrounds, gyms and fitness centers, etc. It is quite comfortable and the cost of renting this category of an apartment depends on the size and where it is located.

While "yeollip jutaek (연립 주택)" may also be called apartments, in Korean, the word "apateu" generally refers to high rise apartments, while yeollip jutaek refers to "small size apartment buildings" of under three stories. They are similar to high rise apartments in internal layout.


1.They are equipped with Elevators.

2.They come with security and surveillance features.

3.They have good maintenance and services.

4.They are usually close to all the convenient stores and is situated commonly in city areas.


They are generally too expensive and require a good amount of savings if taking a loan is not desired.

Ideal users:

These apartments are ideal for families and married couples.

Rent example
Hongik University Station vicinity 2BR, 1BATH
Deposit ₩250,000,000 / Monthly Rent ₩0 + Maintenance Fee ₩0

Villa (빌라)

Villas, also known as townhouses in South Korea, are multi-residential buildings that are 4 floors or less. These are low-rising apartments also known as townhouses in Korea. This low-rise building has lesser storeys than the high-rise building and is built in a very accommodative way. It is built to have a magnificent luxurious setting and comes with extra perks like balconies and a private compound. These places are very hard to rent or in other words they operate according to Jeonse rental system under which the tenant needs to pay a huge sum of deposit at the time of renting which is given back again after the contract period is over. The landlord, most likely, use these money for other investments. These places might be spacious but are neither furnished nor equipped with any of the appliances, and fixtures that are used in daily life. The charge for security internet also adds to the expenses. However, this type of housing is highly affordable compared to the cost of a private house.


1.They are a lot more spacious than one-rooms and Goshiwon and consist of multiple bedrooms.

2.They are comparatively cheaper than private houses and high-rise apartments.

3.Security and maintenance costs are quite less.


1. These kinds of houses are not equipped with elevators.

2. Security costs have to be paid.

Ideal users:

Families or couples.

Private Houses (단독주택)

Dandok jutaek is detached house that serve the purpose of isolated living. This style is called "dandok jutaek" in Korean, meaning "private house". Private homes are typically one or two storeyed buildings with limited yard areas. These are restricted homes created for well-heeled individuals and families. In Korea, it is not a standard practice to live separately with family in an apartment or a private building. Contrary to a public residence, where numerous people live together in different apartments in a compound, private homes are just for the owners, their families, and any invited guests. The majority of private homes are found in urban areas and international districts like Korea's capital Seoul and some other well-known cities. This is a luxurious kind of housing for those that are financially capable of affording homes. The comfort, luxury, and security are unmatched. Celebrities and business titans are the high-class residents of these apartments who can easily afford the high expense of renting the apartment in Korea.

Service Residence

In Korea, there are residents called service residents. These are a kind of residences that are built, fully furnished, decorated, and designed to accommodate visitors. Either visitors staying for a short or long period. The features and characteristics of a service residence may sound similar to that of a hotel, but the service residence is different from hotel settings because in a hotel it is required to just pay per night for the room or suite that will be occupied while the service residence is a kind of house type in Korea where rents are paid according to the duration the visitor wants to stay. A service residence is usually the best apartment to go for, if someone has to stay in Korea for few months for business deal, language course or other such works. Everything is well-equipped in a service residence. The tenant enjoys a well-furnished living room, kitchen, appliances and other amenities. The service residence usually contains everything a person would enjoy in a typical rental apartment within a short visitation period. Among other things, service residence also offers the perks of staying as a family, doing washing and dishes, and cooking if preferred. Visitors visiting Korea choose living in a service apartment over a hotel room where they pay per night and have everything done for them at an additional expense.

Korean House-Warming (집들이)


Moving into a new house has always been considered as an auspicious event in anyone’s life. People feel the most secure when at home, spending quality time with the loved ones and making beautiful memories with family. Although, the rituals associated with moving in a new house might vary across boundaries, the main intention behind it is always to celebrate the accomplishment and to wish for good fortune and prosperity for the inhabitants during their stay in the house. In Korea, as in the majority of other nations, it is customary to host a housewarming celebration for family, friends, and acquaintances after relocating into a new residence. A similar celebration is also planned when a newlywed couple enters the home after returning from their honeymoon. It essentially includes rituals and ceremonies held in advance when entering a newly built house for the first time or moving into someone else's house. However, this practice is gradually fading in the contemporary Korea due to various socio-economic circumstances.

Visitors attending jibdeuri present soap, candles, matches, and other items as presents to the owner in an effort to make their wishes come true. Such traditions, however, had a brief history, and in poor farm households, life revolved on making bread and sharing it with the neighbourhood. While Jibdeuri refers to the organising of a house warming party, Jibari is the term that refers to attending a housewarming party and visiting a newlywed couple or someone who has just moved into a new home. In other words, from the viewpoint of the home's owner, "housewarming" is actually "householding" from the standpoint of the guest visiting the house. It is also known as "deulchari (들차리)" in Ongjin-gun, Gyeonggi-do, and in the evening of the "good day" chosen by feng shui, the owner invites friends and residents of the community to a feast. Bibimbap (비빔밥) is typically served with rice, bean sprouts, and gangtu (a type of seaweed). People sing and play the hourglass-shaped drum (장구; janggu) throughout the night to rejoice. In the Seongnam area, people also have a similar celebration when building or moving into a new home. In Jeju Island and other places, traditional customs such as performing ancestral rites during housewarming, still persists.

By drafting and distributing a housewarming invitation (Hanja: 招待狀), it is vital to notify the invited guests about the housewarming by writing down fundamental information such as basic greetings, the invitation date and time, the venue, and the event's agenda. The structure and style of the invitation are chosen taking into account the type of ceremony and the preferences of the guests. It can be said that it is one of the essential customs of housewarming to prepare delicious cuisines to the guests invited to the housewarming feast, and it is clear that this tradition is linked to the culture in which a newcomer distributes different types of delicious cuisines to the neighbors’ home.

Past and Present

In the past, it was considered as an occasion that held various superstitious and religious significance, and required performing of various traditional rituals such as hosting an ancestral rite to have the blessings of the ancestors or a religious ceremony to keep away negative energy; however, in contemporary Korea, it serves as a venue for family members to visit the new home or to honour the homeowner. People still tend to hold large housewarming parties owing to the belief that the feast brings good fortune to the house and their owner.

In the recent years, “Online housewarming” or "Internet housewarming", is gaining much popularity. It is a type of housewarming that takes place online and involves posting pictures of a beautifully adorned home on social media, etc. The difference between an online housewarming and a traditional one lies in the choice and the number of people invited. In traditional form, only people with social connections are invited, however, in the online form any people using the social media is able to see the house through the uploaded posts. Also, online form does not necessarily require the viewers to visit the house physically which, in turn, allows managing the number of visitors. Additionally, unlike a conventional housewarming, this online platform allows guests to view images of interior construction sites.

Traditionally, the customary practices associated with housewarming were not only more socially oriented but also deeply rooted to and intertwined with various religious and superstitious beliefs. However, it is to be noted that the rituals and beliefs did vary among the inhabitants of the different regions of the Korean peninsula and its islands. The popular customs practiced during housewarming included “seongjumulrim (성주물림)”, one of the rituals of the Jindo samurai family, and “seongjupuri (성주풀이)”, a shamanic myth or epic song, in honour of Seongju God (Hangeul: 성주신; Hanja: 城主神), the supreme deity of the house, who builds and protects the house, and oversees every element related to the household, from furniture and appliances to peace and good fortune in the family. It is Seongju that brings cattle, grains, rice paddies and silk clothing to the home, and ensures the longevity of parents and proliferation of offspring that are pious and loyal, promising success in government service and in farming.


The home guardian God Seongju and his wife Jisin, the land goddess, are the subjects of the shamanic tale or epic ballad known as "Seongjupuri," which tells their story. When someone moves into a new house or marks the completion of a newly built house, the song is performed or recited as part of shamanic ceremonies for Seongju God. The Ansim Guk (안심국) type from the Busan region and the Hwang Woo-yang (황우양) type from the northern regions of Gyeonggi Province are the two variants of this story that have survived. Both recounts how the union of heaven and earth led to the genesis of the deity Seongju, but the details are very different. The Hwang Woo-yang type begins with the birth of Hwang Woo-yang between Cheondaemoksin of the Palace Under Heaven and Lady Jital of the Palace Underground. The baby grew up and married, and one day a sudden east wind blew, battering the Palace Under Heaven into decline, and the palace’s guardian deity Seongju disappeared as well. The person summoned to solve this problem was Hwang Woo-yang, who was living at the foot of Mount Hwangsan in the Palace Underground. Since he did not have carpentry tools, his wife had them made for him, using metal she had received from the Palace Under Heaven. Seeing him off, she instructs him never to talk back to anyone on his way to the palace. But Hwang Woo-yang falls for Sojinnang's deception and agrees to switch clothes while conversing with him. Sojinnang attempts to assume Hwang Woo-yang’s role as husband by travelling to the Palace Underground while wearing his clothes, but Hwang Woo-yang’s wife outwits him and manages to keep him out while he continues his journey to the Palace Under Heaven. In his dream, Hwang Woo-yang learns of this predicament, and after finishing his duties, he immediately leaves for home. He learns what has been going on via a note that his wife had written in blood. He then changes into a bird to hide under his wife's skirt and succeeds in capturing Sojinnang. He confines the captive in a stone box and bestows the title of Seonang (Village Guardian Deity) upon him. He confers the title of Jisin, the land goddess, to his wife after learning that she has mastered the art of raising silkworms and spinning silk, and he adopts the title of Seongju, the home guardian deity, himself.

In the Ansim Guk type of the “Seongjupuri” narrative, the husband’s name is Ansim Guk, also known as Seongjossi. When he learns that there is no house for him in the Palace Underground, he plants pine nuts for lumber. He falls into debauchery, however, which sends him into exile and upon his return to the Palace Underground, cuts down the pine trees and builds his house. Upon completion of the house, he takes on the title of Seongju.

As a song used in shamanic rites to worship the house guardian god of a new home, the "Seongjupuri" myth is primarily a story about husband and wife, the cornerstone of the family. This myth lends meaning to family fortune-wishing rituals by narrating the tale of a husband and wife who overcome obstacles to become a house guardian deity and a land goddess, respectively.

Unlike in the contemporary Korea, where only the house owner has to look after the preparation of the feast, in the olden times, the whole village used to take part in the preparation and celebration of the house warming events. In the Jincheon-gun (진천군) region of Chungcheongbuk island (충청북도), there was a culture of praying for a peaceful life in a new home through Gosa (告祀) and Antaek (安宅), and this culture still exists today.


The term "gosa (Hangeul: 고사; Hanja: 告祀)" refers to a series of ceremonies conducted to pray for peace and well-being that is performed to invoke the domestic Gods, also known as "Gasin (Hangeul: 가신; Hanja: 家神)”, such as Seongju (the house guardian deity), Teoju (the land tutelary god), Jeseok (the goddess of childbirth), Samsin (the goddess of childbearing), and Jowang (Kitchen Deity).

This ceremony, which usually takes place in the tenth lunar month, is a comprehensive worship liturgy for the several guardian deities that protect the house. In the scripts of “Dongguksesigi (Hangeul: 동국세시기; Hanja: 東國歲時記)” (A Record of the Seasonal Customs of the Eastern Kingdom) it is recorded, “In the tenth lunar month, which was the best month of the year (sangdal; Hangeul: 상달), homes held shaman rituals for the household gods, with rice cake and fruits as sacrificial food.”

Following the selection of an auspicious date for the ritual, taboos are enforced to keep impurities out. A taboo rope is stretched over the gate (geumjul; Hangeul: 금줄), and red clay (hwangto; Hangeul: 황토) is scattered out front. Family members exercised extreme caution to avoid engaging in filthy acts once the taboo rope was hung, and kept within the grounds of the house. Alcohol and rice cake served as the primary sacrificed foods during the ritual. Sirutteok (시루떡), a red bean-filled rice cake consisting of thin layers, and Baekseolgi (백설기), a thick white block without layers, both served as offerings to Samsin, the goddess of childbirth who resides in the women's quarters' inner chamber. The woman of the home begins the ritual by bowing once the sacrificial foods have been set out. It is followed by a prayer which she performs while rubbing her palms together (bison) or reciting an invocation. Only sacrifices are offered to Chilseong (the Seven Stars), Cheuksin (the Outhouse God), Madangsin (the Garden God), and Munsin (the Gate God), without any kind of ritualistic procedures.

Gosa is essential to household deity worship, a ritual that highlights the importance of these spirits and their significance. The ceremony is performed after the fall harvest as a proceeding of thanks giving to the deities for a successful crop. It is also, occasionally, performed during the first lunar month.

Antaek (ritual for domestic harmony), “Antaekgosa Gido (안택고사 기도)” (Antaek exam prayer), “Dosinje (도신제)” (prayer ceremony), and Sirugosa (시루고사) are some regional versions of the word "gosa" (rice cake steamer rite).


The ritual known as Antaek, literally meaning "peace in the house," is performed by the lady of the house in order to thank and pray to the domestic Gods (Gasin) for a bountiful crop and for peace in the home.

On the first or tenth lunar month, this ceremony is performed either once a year or every three years. It is also celebrated when a new house is constructed, when the family receives a new house guardian god (Seongju), when ill luck strikes the family, and when the current house guardian God transfers authority to a new deity. Around the nation, there are two different sorts of Antaek rituals: the first is performed by the lady of the home and involves hand-rubbing bison; the second is performed by a shaman and involves gut procedures (shamanic ritual).

The steps for doing Antaek start with choosing an auspicious day for the ritual, then impurities are removed, sacrificial food is offered, and finally the rite is performed. The lady of the family chooses dates, although occasionally a village fortune-teller is consulted to choose a date that is beyond the reach of the prying spirit son. To keep others away on the day of the rite, a taboo rope (geumjul) is placed over the gate and red clay is scattered on the sidewalk (hwangto). The making of Sirutteok (a tiered rice cake with red bean filling), wine, a sweet rice beverage, and cooked veggies come next.

The home guardian God Seongju, who is housed on the girders of the open hall, is offered adoration and sacrificed dishes as part of the ritual's opening act. Additionally, ritual tables are set up in the kitchen for Jowang, on the sauce jar terrace or in the yard for the deity Teoju, the protector of the soil, and in the inner room for Samsin, the goddess of childbirth, where the housewife offers a simplistic prayer by rubbing her palms together. The hosting family distributes the rice cake to the neighbours after the rite.

When a shaman or sorcerer is called in to officiate, the ritual is called Antaekgut (안택굿), or shamanic ritual for peace in the house. Some wealthy or religious families do this ritual on a regular basis, hiring a shaman or sorcerer they have a strong bond with. In case of other families, when the shaman's divination predicts bad luck or three tragedies (Samjae; Hangeul: 삼재, Hanja: 三災) at the beginning of the year, this ritual is hosted. In addition to this, when a new house is built, a family member is gravely ill, or when problems like accidents or failed businesses persist in the family, Antaekgut is staged.

House warming test and rituals

It is interesting to note that, the term housewarming actually refers to a test that used to take place on the first day after moving into a newly built house or when moving into someone else’s house. It is also said that according to a theory, 'housewarming' originated from this housewarming test. Originally, the test was held on the evening of the first day of relocation, but as the celebration of the house's completion became more significant than the ritualistic nature of activities, the event's contents altered. Nowadays, there are cases where a prayer of thanksgiving or worship is held in place of the traditional housewarming examination.

The explanation related to housewarming events is well presented in the scripts of Forest Economy by Hong Man-seon, a scholar of the late Joseon dynasty. The words in the script says, when the house is built, incense and alcohol, a bowl of clean water, and a willow branch or green leaf are provided. It is required to offer sacrifices and purified water to the vassals or the Jowangsin. And while offering a rite to the gods of heaven and earth, he said, “Observe the yin and yang gods of heaven and earth and the sun, moon, and stars, I hope that auspicious energy will dwell in the house. Say to the six spirits that the incense fire will not go out for ten thousand years, and rule the house forever, so that no evil can dwell in it, and that no water or fire invades it. The Moon God protects the house and repels evil spirits, and Tae-eul protects the family and helps all things go smoothly.”  While entering the new house, the fire is put on before moving in the luggage. Entering empty handed in the house is believed to bring bad fortune, hence, it is good to take grains, mirror and the vassal while stepping into the house. This makes sense why fire-related braziers, briquettes, gas cylinders, and pots are moved into the house first.

A further summarization provides insights to the list of items that should not be carried to the new house. One should refrain from carrying brooms, cold rice, vinegar bottle, millstones, knives, animals, etc. It is believed that broom symbolises a depressing magical connotation of sweeping away the prosperity of a new house. Further, cold rice represents poverty while the vinegar bottle denotes that the household will become destitute along the lines of the sourness of the vinegar. Likewise, a millstone operates to grind grains which brings into scene, a metaphorical evil meaning of grinding the prosperity of the house leading to poverty. A knife, that basically slices and cuts down things, is symbolical of the dissolution or downfall of the family. Also, it holds a practical meaning of protecting the people from weapons like knives and axes. This is because the beasts believe that the good God of the house sees their ugly faces and runs away. Like a millstone, it is brought with a choice. It is said that a wealthy family held a sacramental ceremony when the house is built, and the year that celebrates the first year of the house is referred to as a "house birthday," much like a person's first birthday celebration.

Housewarming Gifts

When invited to a housewarming party, the most common and obvious gift that comes to mind is home-decor items like photo-frames, paintings, ceramics or bed-sheets. However, in Korea, it is a culture to present sanitary items such as toiletries, towels and shampoo, as gift, when attending a housewarming party. The most popular gifts include toilet papers and laundry detergent which signifies long term cleanliness in the new home. Additionally, it implies that household chores can be completed smoothly, like the roll of toilet papers (화장지), or profitably, like a bubble of detergent (세제). The tradition of purchasing toilet papers or detergents as gifts dates back to the time when South Korea was an underdeveloped nation and not everyone could afford to buy sanitary items as these were deemed to be expensive. Washing powders also hold an alternate meaning in Korean culture. The detergent symbolizes a home that is physically and spiritually pure. Money and prosperity are represented by the sparkling, spherical bubbles. Receiving laundry detergent as a housewarming present expresses the desire of the giver that the recipients have a clean and prosperous home. Another common variation of a laundry detergent is a dish washing soap. Even from a practical perspective, items like soap, detergent, towel, etc. are vital items that can be used in day-to-day life and will last long without rotting or expiring upon keeping unused for a long time.

Apart from sanitary products, items like air purifiers and potted plants (화분) serve as excellent gifts for such an occasion as they help in keeping the air fresh. Potted plants can bring some colour and life into a new house, particularly if they have fragrant blossoms. Green plants are viewed as a symbol of life, health, and prosperity in Korean culture. The Window-leaf plant and the Snake plant are two popular traditional plants to give as gifts. Large green fronds with oblong-shaped openings separate the leaves of the Window-leaf plant. This plant requires low care because of its excellent tolerance to dry and warm conditions. Additionally, this plant is believed to bring luck in businesses and is, therefore, common to be found in Korean company openings and important meetings. The Snake plant, on the other hand, has long, pointed leaves with a variety of green hues. This plant thrives in arid, shaded environments.

Koreans tend to give candles and matches as gifts on this auspicious day. The fire is usually the key element of the traditional homes everywhere around the world and the hearth is at its center. In the traditional Korean households, the fire was transferred as a part of a particular ritual, and its presence was required to satisfy and gratify the spirits. It is likely that it was also used to honour Jowangsin, the goddess of the hearth and fire. Candles and matches are still gifted today as part of this ancient ritual, as they are meant to "light up" the house with luck and prosperity.

Owing to the drinking culture of South Korea, gifting alcoholic drinks and beverages such as a bottle of wine or whiskey during a housewarming feast is not a bad option as well. In many cases, it helps in strengthening the bonds and relationships between the visitors and the house owner. Above all, it is a gift for the people who live in the house holding the housewarming party, so it is crucial to choose the gifts in consideration of the circumstances of the house owner and their family.

Rental System

Finding a house in South Korea can be a really daunting process as the housing market and the rental system in Korea is quite different than that in the other parts of the world. Those on their venture to finding a suitable accommodation require adequate research ability and judgement to choose the type of property that fits their needs as well as provides the feeling of a safety as afterall our homes are our safe spaces.[1] Rapid increase in demand of properties despite a global pandemic has resulted in a 40% increase in house prices in Seoul, compared to last two years. So rental housing is becoming an affordable choice for individuals.[1]

In Korea, the pricing mechanism is quite different than that in other parts of the world. Here rental system is divided into two main categories Jeonse (전세) and Wolsae (월세) and another short-term rental system Dangi Imdae (단기임대). [1]

 Jeonse (전세)

 Jeonse (Hangeul: 전세; Hanja: 傳貰) is an intermediary scheme which is in between monthly rent (Wolsae) and ownership (Jaga). [2] It is also known as “key money deposit” or “key money”, which is a type of lease where a tenant has to make a lump-sum deposit on a rental property instead of paying monthly rent. [2]This allows the tenant to live rent free until the end of lease term (usually 2 years). 10% of the Jeonse is paid as deposit and the rest should be paid upon moving in[3]. The landlord then uses this deposit to re-invest and keep all of the interest earned. Once the lease term is over, the entire deposit is then returned to the tenant. The landlord can treat the deposit as a 0% interest rate loan to invest into other capital, which made Jeonse especially desirable in the 20th century when interest rates were very high. This is quite a common system in South Korea for both consumers and landlords, as it also gives chance to combine a lower Jeonse with a lower monthly rent. [2][3]

Although, the landlord is able to invest the key money deposit, there is a condition that it must be returned at the end of lease period. there are certain rules and regulations that the tenant must abide by during their stay. For instance, during the tenancy, the tenant is responsible for keeping the property in good condition and must obtain the landlord's consent before making any construction-related changes. [4] Given that some tenants have had trouble getting their key deposits back, it is crucial to do a comprehensive research and validate all pertinent information regarding the landlord and the property. To protect oneself and avoid any fraud it is best to register the deposit with the local government office (구청) located nearest to the concerned property. There is also an option of doing credit checks on the landlord and the property.[1] The tenant’s deposit is protected by having a lien issued against the property for the amount given. [3]

Even nevertheless, the administration has taken a number of steps to adjust policies in order to preserve Jeonse since real estate values have increased significantly in recent years. The government has intentions to have a stable housing lease market by delivering additional housing properties across the country in an effort to lower prices, even though for tenants the Jeonse system is gradually losing favor due to the low interest rate on housing and the narrow margins on other investments. [1][2]

Weolse (월세)

Another main type of rental system in Korea which is becoming popular these days, is Wolsae (월세). Wolsae is a similar type of rental system that prevails in Western housing markets. Wolsae refers to a system where the tenant pays a small deposit after 1-to-2-years rental contract and pays a monthly usage fee or the monthly rent. The deposit is usually 10 to 20 times the monthly rent.[1] [4]

10% of the key money is deposited as the contract fee and remainder of the key money is paid after moving in. But if a tenant terminates the bond before the contract term is over, then the tenant will not be able to get their deposit refund. However, if the landlord terminates the bond midway, then they have to compensate the tenant with double the deposit amount.[4]

Though, normally the rule is to return the full deposit after the contract is terminated. If there are certain factors like rent, utilities, etc., the deposit can be returned excluding these arrears.[4] Usually, utility and maintenance fees are paid separately.[4] Next, the brokerage fees usually vary in accordance with the type, size and price of house. The real estate agencies are capable of conversing in foreign languages (mainly English, Chinese, Japanese) as well and the list can be checked from SMG real estate information portal ([5]


Usually, the average deposits for Wolsae starts at 5,000,000 KRW and can go up to 40,000,000 KRW; as higher initial key money demands a lower monthly rent; for example, The average key-money amount in Seoul is 5,000,000 Won for a studio accommodation, and monthly payments can start from 400,000 won. [5] However recent trends show that Wolsae is slowly beginning to lose popularity as landlords opt for a more reliable source of cash flow in a monthly basis, so they lower the key deposit amounts. Since this entire key contract or key money is held directly with the lessor instead of any housing authority, there is always some risks behind such matters. This is why it is always important to investigate and run background checks on the property as well as the property owner.[1][5]

Dangi Imdae (단기임대)

The third type of rental system is the Dangi Imdae (단기임대), which is a short-term in contract nature. This rental system does not require any significant key money prior to moving in. However, this system is not very well-liked among people. Being a short-term rent, sometimes there is a key money or initial deposit that is equivalent to 1 month rent. Due to the unstable system and extremely little profit for the landlord, short-term rentals are not particularly common in Korea. [5]

Utilities and Maintenance


After renting any apartment or villa, the next thing to keep in mind is the building maintenance fee (관리비). This is a monthly fee which covers utilities such as internet, elevator maintenance, garbage disposal and building security guards. For villas it is a different case, there might be some fee which is decided along with the neighbors and co-residents to contribute to cover the cost of certain services like washing the villa exterior during the months in spring. Sometimes there is no maintenance fee at all, and it should be written “maintenance fee absent (관리비 없음)” in the rental contract. [1][5]

Sometimes the utility costs are to be paid in addition to the monthly rent. However, those charges are considered from the monthly rent. If the utility fees are included in the maintenance fee, the contract should have “maintenance fee included (관리비포함내역)” written on it. For example, if water and internet is mentioned right next to 관리비포함내역, then no separate fee for water and internet will be charged, but other utilities like gas, electricity has to be paid.

Building maintenance fees cost ranges from 50,000 KRW -110,000 KRW per month. This amount is variable as the utility and maintenance fees depend on the housing type. Each housing type has a different fee rate calculated per pyeong (평). Pyeong is a traditional method of measurement which the Koreans use to calculate the size of the houses. Pyeong is about 3.3 square meters or 3.5 feet approximately. One can find this measurement method is still in use when visiting the local real estate agent (부동산).[1][5]

Utility fees including water, gas, electricity, is calculated by a specific formula. A fixed charge (depends on the region, city, and the type of housing) + a consumption tariff + 10% VAT + a very small percentage of additional fees (about 0.04%, depends on the region, city, and the type of housing) = amount for payment. [5]

Housing Policies in Korea

Real estate and housing prices are a major political issue that results into dominating debates about the South Korean government.[7] To respond to market conditions in a preventative and flexible manner and to rein in a speculative demand in overheated areas while managing supply to an appropriate level in contracted areas and restore the housing market driven towards the actual demand of the citizens; keeping all these factors in check the government has introduced few policies in lieu of the housing and rental market.[8]

Housing Market Stability

As the housing market expands, the industry’s influence also expands and this becomes one of the most important aspects for the economy. Thus the housing policies has to two major goals- ensuring housing stability and maintaining the economy.[9] To control the speculative demand policies are designed which modify reconstruction regulations by increasing safety diagnosis of apartments that fall under the reconstructable category and recapturing surplus rebuilding gains. Another strategy is to introduce a debt service ratio or a stricter financial regulation for mortgage loans and applying heavier capital gains tax to multiple homeowners.[8]

Real demand centric

Imposing a stronger punishment for illegal practices to distort the housing market such as price rigging or fraudulent transactions or money laundering by making contracts and then intentionally cancelling them, raising asking prices as well as real transaction prices. Reducing the transaction period for reporting and modifying the subscription system to give non-homeowners more room for being drawn. Another effect of this policy is to strengthen restriction on the resale of pre-sale rights for apartments to which a pre-sale price cap is applied.

Contracted areas and Monitoring

This focuses on bringing down the housing supply to an appropriate level by managing the unsold pre-sale properties in provincial areas and adjusting LH's supply of sites for construction, and controlling the start of building public pre-sale houses. Along with this enforcing tenant protection by providing guarantee for the return of rental deposit and expanding the priority of claim for small-sum deposit. Monitoring of speculation prone areas or slumped areas also to be strengthened to assure that a rapid response to abnormal issues and thus preventing low-income households from being damaged.

The government also has plans to secure a stable housing facility for those coming from low-income households with a proper approach focusing on life stages and income levels, basically by increasing public rental housing to ensure long term residence.

  • For citizens belonging to low-income households, the authorities plan to provide 1.04mn units of public housing by 2022, which if broken down further comes to 695,000 units for public rental housing, 200,000 units for public supply private rental housing, and 150,000 units for public pre-sale housing. This strategy expands housing benefits with the eradication of family support obligation rule in October 2018.
  • For newlyweds, the plan is to provide 50,000 units of public rental housing and 100,000 units of pre-sale housing with proximity to childcare centers. The focus of this scheme is to increase number of recipients and ratio of pre-sale housing for newlyweds. By introducing Jeonse or mortgage loans with comparatively lower rates of interest, it can help to reduce the debt that acts as a burden for newlyweds seeking to buying a house or rental.
  • For young adults, the government will Supply 270,000 units of rental housing in various types such as Happy Housing, share houses, SOHO clusters, dormitory-style residence, etc. In this way individuals who do not own a house and have a low income can fund for residence through a housing subscription account. Lowering the minimum age limit for Jeonse loans from 25 to 19 and slightly raising the monthly rent capital for loan from KRW300,000 to KRW400,000.
  • For Elderly people, provision of 50,000 units of rental housing that connects barrier-free design i.e., no obstruction in doorways, sinks with adjustable heights etc. This can help aged people with free movement thus reducing chances of accidents occurring within homes. It is also planned to install motion sensors for senior citizens living alone to prevent lonely deaths. The government promises to support elderlies by covering their cost of living through facilitating pension schemes with the rents collected from lending out their houses for sale to others.

Housing in South Korea might seem a little too complex at first for people but with some insights into the foundations of the systems and types of houses, their measuring methodologies this issue can be overcome. The housing sector in South Korea is a beaming field these days, with its rapid growth and extensive infrastructural developments, introduction of new and improved policies for the benefits of the citizens, the government agencies and institutions play a pivotal role in the process. With its unique economic, social and cultural aspects, South Korea can be taken as a model of reference for inspiration on development and maintenance.


























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Tithi Ghosh
23 Oct 2022
Views 27

Topic : Seoljanggunori (설장구놀이)

Team Members : Srotoswini, Soumi, Tithi (WB4)

Introduction : For our second wikipedia topic of this semester we wrote about Seoljanggunori, a form of individual nori (놀이) or a performance play which is performed by the janggu (장구) or percussion performers of the pungmul (풍물) troupe standing in the center of an open-air performance space.

Link : Seoljanggunori (설장구놀이) wikipedia

22 Oct 2022
Views 32

The hanbok (কোরিয়ান: πττ▫;  হানজা: ππ;  RR: hanbok; lit।  কোরিয়ান পোশাক;) এটি ঐতিহ্যবাহী কোরিয়ান কাপড় যা বিশ্বজুড়ে কোরিয়ানদের দ্বারা পরিধান করা হয়েছে.

কোরিয়ানদের পোষাকের প্রাচীনতম ঐতিহাসিক রেকর্ডটি  কোরীয় উপদ্বীপে ছড়িয়ে থাকা লৌহ যুগের দেশগুলি থেকে সামগুকি (তিনটি দেশের রেকর্ড) এবং ভায়েও, গোকুরিও এবং সামহানের মতো মাঞ্চুরিয়া থেকে অধ্যায়টিতে বিস্তারিতভাবে বর্ণনা করা হয়েছে। এতে লেখা আছে, "Buyeo এর লোকেরা সাদা রঙকে পবিত্র বলে মনে করে, সাদা রঙকে লালন করে, তারা সাদা পোশাক পরেছিল, ডোপো (গাউন) এবং সোমাই (হাতা) খুব প্রশস্ত। অন্ত্যেষ্টিক্রিয়ায় সাদা শণ পরিধান করা হয়। তারা ইয়ং-গো নামে আকাশে একটি স্বর্গীয় আচার তৈরি করে, যদি আমরা চন্দ্র ক্যালেন্ডারের কথা উল্লেখ করি তবে এটি ডিসেম্বর। যখন তারা বিদেশে যায়, পুরু ফ্যাব্রিক, পাঁচটি রঙিন থ্রেড এমব্রয়ডারি সিল্ক সহ পরিধান করা হয়, নীল উল পরা উপভোগ করুন। বড় লোকেরা শিয়াল, র ্যাকুন, কালো এবং সাদা মার্টেন কোট পরে, টুপিতে সোনা এবং রৌপ্য সজ্জিত করে", "'মহানে, তারা ইতিমধ্যে সিল্ক তৈরি করতে জানে, সুতি এবং শণ পরা উপভোগ করে। তারা স্ফটিক জপমালা অ্যাক্সেসযোগ্যদের লালন করে। তারা সোনা, বিলাসিতা, Geum (রঙ্গিন সূচিকর্ম সিল্ক), গাই ফ্যাব্রিক (নীল পাখি দিয়ে তৈরি)" পছন্দ করে না।", "গোকুরিয়ার লোকেরা গিউম (রঙ্গিন, সূচিকর্মযুক্ত, প্যাটার্ন সজ্জিত সিল্ক), সোনা এবং রৌপ্য দিয়ে সজ্জিত পরিধান করে। গোগুরিয়া অভ্যন্তরের লোকদের পুরুষ ও মহিলা উভয়ই বৃত্তাকার কলার পরেছেন, ফুলের আকৃতির রৌপ্য আনুষাঙ্গিক দিয়ে সজ্জিত।

হানবোকের চাক্ষুষ চিত্রগুলি কোরিয়া যুগের তিনটি রাজ্যে (57 খ্রিস্টপূর্বাব্দ থেকে 668 খ্রিস্টাব্দ)  ফিরে পাওয়া যেতে পারে  যা বর্তমানে কোরিয়া এবং মাঞ্চুরিয়ার প্রোটো-কোরিয়ানীয় জনগণের মধ্যে শিকড় রয়েছে। এটি  খ্রিস্টীয় চতুর্থ থেকে ষষ্ঠ শতাব্দী পর্যন্ত একই সময়ের গগুরিও সমাধির ম্যুরালের শিল্পকলাতেও পাওয়া যায়। [১] প্রাচীন হানবোকের মধ্যে একটি জিওগোরি (টপ), বাজি (প্যান্ট), চিমা (স্কার্ট) এবং পো (কোট) ছিল। হানবোকের মৌলিক কাঠামোটি  চলাচলের স্বাচ্ছন্দ্যকে সহজতর করার জন্য ডিজাইন করা হয়েছিল এবং মু-আইসমের অনেক মোটিফকে সংহত করা হয়েছিল। [২] হানবোকের এই মৌলিক কাঠামোগত বৈশিষ্ট্যগুলি  আজ পর্যন্ত তুলনামূলকভাবে অপরিবর্তিত রয়েছে। যাইহোক, বর্তমান দিনের হানবোক, যা আজকাল পরিধান করা হয়, জোসেওন রাজবংশে পরিধান  করা হানবোকের পরে প্যাটার্ন করা হয়,[২] বিশেষ করে আভিজাত্য এবং রাজকীয়তা দ্বারা পরিধান করা হয়। [৩]: ১০৪[৪]

আজকাল, সমসাময়িক কোরিয়ানরা  আনুষ্ঠানিক বা আধা-আনুষ্ঠানিক অনুষ্ঠান এবং বিবাহ, উত্সব, উদযাপন এবং অনুষ্ঠানের মতো অনুষ্ঠানের জন্য হানবোক পরিধান করে। ১৯৯৬ সালে দক্ষিণ কোরিয়ার সংস্কৃতি, ক্রীড়া ও পর্যটন মন্ত্রণালয় দক্ষিণ কোরিয়ার নাগরিকদের হানবোক পরতে উৎসাহিত করার জন্য  "হানবোক দিবস" প্রতিষ্ঠা করে। [৫] আজকের হানবোক গঠন জোসেওন যুগের।

আধুনিক ব্যবহার

Hanbok আন্তর্জাতিক haute couture বৈশিষ্ট্যযুক্ত হয়েছে; ক্যাটওয়াকে, 2015 সালে, যখন কার্ল লেগারফিল্ড চ্যানেলের জন্য কোরিয়ান মডেলদের পোষাক পরেছিলেন, এবং ফিল ওহ দ্বারা ফটোগ্রাফিতে প্যারিস ফ্যাশন সপ্তাহের সময়। [১১২] এটি ব্রিটনি স্পিয়ার্স এবং জেসিকা আলবার মতো আন্তর্জাতিক সেলিব্রিটিরা এবং টেনিস খেলোয়াড় ভেনাস উইলিয়ামস এবং ফুটবল খেলোয়াড় হিনস ওয়ার্ডের মতো ক্রীড়াবিদদের  দ্বারাও পরিধান করা হয়েছে। [113]

হানবোক এশিয়ান-আমেরিকান সেলিব্রিটিদের মধ্যে জনপ্রিয়, যেমন লিসা লিং এবং মিস এশিয়া ২০১৪, এরিকো লি কাটাইয়ামা। [১১৪] এটি রেড কার্পেটেও উপস্থিত হয়েছে, এবং  এসএজি অ্যাওয়ার্ডসে সান্ড্রা ওহ দ্বারা পরিধান করা হয়েছিল, এবং সান্ড্রা ওহের মা যিনি ২০১৮ সালে এমি পুরষ্কারে একটি হ্যানবোক পরার জন্য ফ্যাশন ইতিহাস তৈরি করেছিলেন

দক্ষিণ কোরিয়া

যদিও হানবোক একটি ঐতিহ্যবাহী পোশাক, এটি আধুনিক ফ্যাশনে পুনরায় জনপ্রিয় হয়েছে। [১১৬] যেহেতু হানবোক আধুনিকীকরণ অব্যাহত রেখেছে, তাই পুনরায় ডিজাইনের বিষয়ে মতামত বিভক্ত হয়ে পড়েছে। [117]

দক্ষিণ কোরিয়ার সরকার ফ্যাশন ডিজাইনারদের পৃষ্ঠপোষকতা করে হানবোকের প্রতি আগ্রহের পুনরুত্থানকে সমর্থন করেছে। [১১৮] ঘরোয়াভাবে, হানবোক রাস্তার ফ্যাশন এবং মিউজিক ভিডিওগুলিতে ট্রেন্ডি হয়ে উঠেছে। এটি ব্ল্যাকপিঙ্ক এবং বিটিএসের মতো বিশিষ্ট কে-পপ শিল্পীদের  দ্বারা পরিধান করা হয়েছে, বিশেষ করে "আপনি কীভাবে এটি পছন্দ করেন" এবং "আইডল" এর জন্য তাদের সঙ্গীত ভিডিওগুলিতে। [১১৯][১২০]

সিউলে, হানবোক পরিহিত একজন পর্যটক পাঁচটি গ্র্যান্ড প্যালেস (চ্যাংদেওকগুং, চ্যাংগিয়ংগুং, দেওকসুগুং, গিয়ংবোগং এবং গিয়ংহুইগুং) বিনামূল্যে পরিদর্শন করে।

উত্তর কোরিয়া

হানবোক বর্তমান উত্তর কোরিয়াতেও পরিধান করা হয়  যেখানে এটি জোসেওন-ওট (কোরিয়ান: π)  নামেও পরিচিত; হানজা:  π;  RR: Joseon-ot)। [১২১] জোসেওন-ওট এইভাবে কোরিয়ান নৃগোষ্ঠীর পরিচয় তুলে ধরেছে এবং কিম জং-উনের শাসনামলে আরও সক্রিয়ভাবে প্রচারিত হয়েছে। [১২১] জোসেওন-ওটি বর্তমানে সাধারণত বিশেষ অনুষ্ঠানের সময় পরিধান করা হয়, যেমন বিবাহ,[১২২]: ৪৯  এবং যখন উত্তর কোরিয়ানরা তাদের পিতামাতার ৬০ তম, ৭০ তম এবং ৮০ তম জন্মদিন উদযাপন করে। [১২১] এটিও বাধ্যতামূলক করা হয় যে, কিম জং-ইলের জন্মদিন (১৬ ফেব্রুয়ারি), আন্তর্জাতিক নারী দিবস (৮ মার্চ), কিম ইল-সুংয়ের জন্মদিন (১৫ এপ্রিল), প্রতিষ্ঠা দিবস (৯ সেপ্টেম্বর) এর মতো জাতীয় অনুষ্ঠানে অংশ নেওয়ার সময়  মহিলারা জোসেওন-ওটি পরেন। [১২২]: ৭৮  টি সাদা রঙের হানবক প্রায়শই ব্যবহার করা হয় কারণ সাদা রঙটি ঐতিহ্যগতভাবে কোরিয়ান জনগণ দ্বারা বিশুদ্ধ আত্মার প্রতীক হিসাবে পছন্দ করা হয়েছে। [121]


1.The Dreams of the Living and the Hopes of the Dead-Goguryeo Tomb Murals, ২০০৭, Ho-Tae Jeon, Seoul National University Press উদ্ধৃতি টেমপ্লেট ইংরেজি প্যারামিটার ব্যবহার করেছে (link)

2.অ্যান ওয়াগনার, সারাহ মারুসেক। চাম, সুইজারল্যান্ড: স্প্রিংগার। 2021. পৃষ্ঠা 125। আইএসবিএন 978-3-030-32865-8।

3.Heeoe Hongbowsn (২০০৯ সংস্করণ)। সিওল, কোরিয়া: কোরিয়ান সংস্কৃতি ও তথ্য পরিষেবা। 2009. আইএসবিএন 978-89-7375-153-2।  ওসিএলসি 680802927।

4.Gwak, Sung Youn Sonya (২০০৬)। Be(com) in the United States: Exploring Ethnic Identity Formation through Cultural Practices (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। ক্যামব্রিয়া প্রেস।  আইএসবিএন 9781621969723।

5.Cookie News (১৫ সেপ্টেম্বর ২০১৪)।  "হানবোক দিবসটি সারা দেশের পাঁচটি শহরে উন্মোচিত  হয়।  কুকি নিউজ (কোরিয়ান ভাষায়)। সংগৃহীত ১১ মার্চ ২০২২।

112."The Story Behind Seoul's Latest Street Style Staple"। ভোগ। সংগৃহীত ১৭ অক্টোবর ২০১৮।

113. "8 আমেরিকান সেলিব্রিটিরা হানবোক পরা"। SweetandtastyTV। সংগৃহীত ১৭ অক্টোবর ২০১৮।

114."KIM MeHee hanbok couture"। KIM MeHee hanbok couture।

115."Sandra Oh's mother makes emmys history by wearing traditionalতিহ্যবাহী Korean hanbok to awards"। সংগৃহীত ১৭ অক্টোবর ২০১৮।

116. কিম, মনিকা।  "The Story Behind Seoul's Latest Street Style Staple"। ভোগ।

117."মেয়েরা এখন স্কার্টের সাথে হ্যানবোক পরেছে এবং কোরিয়ানরা নিশ্চিত নয় যে তারা এটি সম্পর্কে কেমন অনুভব করে। কোরিয়াবু । ৯ অক্টোবর ২০১৭। সংগৃহীত ১৭ অক্টোবর ২০১৮।

118. "ডিজাইনাররা হানবোক শৈলীতে একটি আধুনিক টুইস্ট যোগ করে: সরকার কোরিয়া এর ঐতিহ্যগত পোশাকের বহুমুখিতা বিশ্বকে দেখাতে আগ্রহী"। Korea JoongAng Daily (কোরিয়ান ভাষায়)। সংগৃহীত ১৭ অক্টোবর ২০১৮।

119. "11 বার বিটিএস ঐতিহ্যবাহী কোরিয়ান পোশাককে নাড়িয়ে দিয়েছে"। এসবিএস পপএশিয়া। সংগৃহীত ১৭ অক্টোবর ২০১৮।

120."Here's Everything You Need to Know About BlackPINK's Korean Hanbok outfits in "How You Like That" MV.[স্থায়ীভাবে অকার্যকর সংযোগ] ২৬ জুন ২০২০।

121."হানবোক ইন এন. কোরিয়া"।। সংগৃহীত ২১ আগস্ট ২০২২।

122.রহস্যময় পিয়ংইয়ং: প্রসাধনী, সৌন্দর্য সংস্কৃতি এবং উত্তর কোরিয়া। নাম সুং-উক, চ্যা সু-ল্যান, লি গা-ইয়ং (সম্পাদক)। স্প্রিঙ্গার সিঙ্গাপুর। 2020. আইএসবিএন 9789811577031।

Shirsha Singh
21 Oct 2022
Views 24

1. Topic: Yut (यूट)

2. Writer: WBT3 (Hindi Sub Team 2: Shirsha, Suparna, Ritoja, Vaishali)

3. Short Explanation: We created a Wikipedia page on 'Yut' in Hindi. Yut Nori, also known as Yunnori, Nyout, and Yoot, is a traditional board game played in Korea, especially during Korean New Year. The game is also called cheok-sa or sa-hee. The combining-form -nori means 'game'.

4. Link: Yut (यूट)

Shirsha Singh
21 Oct 2022
Views 21

1. Topic: Ministry of Environment (South Korea) (पर्यावरण मंत्रालय (दक्षिण कोरिया)

2. Writer: WBT3 (Hindi Team 2: Suparna, Shirsha, Ritoja, Vaishali)

3. Short Explanation: We created a Wikipedia page on the 'Ministry of Environment (South Korea)' in Hindi. The Ministry of Environment is the South Korean branch of government charged with environmental protection. In addition to enforcing regulations and sponsoring ecological research, the Ministry manages the national parks of South Korea. Its headquarters is in Sejong City.

4. Link: Ministry of Environment (South Korea) (पर्यावरण मंत्रालय (दक्षिण कोरिया)

Shirsha Singh
21 Oct 2022
Views 15

1. Topic: Korean Demilitarized Zone (कोरियाई विसैन्यीकृत क्षेत्र)

2. Writer: WBT3 (Hindi Sub Team 1: Sanskriti, Bharti, Nikhil, Nisha)

3. Short Explanation: We created a Wikipedia page on 'Korean Demilitarized Zone' in Hindi.  The Korean Demilitarized Zone is a strip of land running across the Korean Peninsula near the 38th parallel north. The demilitarized zone (DMZ) is a border barrier that divides the peninsula roughly in half. It was established to serve as a buffer zone between the countries of North Korea and South Korea under the provisions of the Korean Armistice Agreement in 1953, an agreement between North Korea, China, and the United Nations Command.

4. Link: Korean Demilitarized Zone (कोरियाई विसैन्यीकृत क्षेत्र)

Shirsha Singh
21 Oct 2022
Views 13

1. Topic: Aging of South Korea (दक्षिण कोरिया में बुढ़ापा)

2. Writer: WBT3 (Hindi Sub Team 1: Nikhil, Nisha, Sanskriti, Bharti)

3. Short Explanation: We created a Wikipedia page on 'Aging of South Korea' in Hindi. In South Korea, aging refers to an increase in the proportion of senior citizens to the total population. The term "senior citizens" include those aged 65 or older. According to Article 3 no.1 of the Framework Act on Low Birthrate of an Aging Society, the term "aging population" refers to the increasing proportion of elderly people in the entire population.

4. Link: Aging of South Korea (दक्षिण कोरिया में बुढ़ापा)

Shirsha Singh
21 Oct 2022
Views 11

1. Topic: Juksun Food Village

2. Writer: WBT3 (English Sub Team: Sukanya and Shirsha)

3. Short Explanation: We created a Wikipedia page on 'Juksun Food Village' in English. Juksun Food Village located in Damyang, Jeollanam-do, South Korea, is a Korean food-themed street. Juksun means bamboo shoot. This was selected as one of the food-themed streets in 2013 along with Snow crab street in Yeongdeok, and Myeongdong-style Dakgalbi street in Chuncheon. This is part of the food tourism campaign which includes promoting food streets, themed food tours on train travels, Korean traditional alcohol, farms, locals, and market for specific regions based on local ingredients including seasonal food.

4. Link: Juksun Food Village

Shirsha Singh
21 Oct 2022
Views 10

1. Topic: Yakgwa (ইয়াকগওয়া)

2. Writer: WBT3 (Bengali Sub Team 2: Sreetama, Deepsita, Sayantika)

3. Short Explanation: We created a Wikipedia page on 'Yakgwa' in Bengali. Yakgwa (약과), also called gwajul (과줄), is a type of yumil-gwa, which is deep-fried, wheat-based hangwa (Korean confection) made with honey, cheongju (rice wine), sesame oil, and ginger juice. Traditionally, the sweet was offered in a jesa (ancestral rite) and enjoyed on festive days such as chuseok (harvest festival), marriages, or hwangap (sixtieth-birthday) celebrations. In modern South Korea, it is also served as a dessert and can be bought at traditional markets or supermarkets.

4. Link: Yakgwa (ইয়াকগওয়া)

Shirsha Singh
21 Oct 2022
Views 9

1. Topic: Sport in South Korea (দক্ষিণ কোরিয়ায় খেলাধুলা)

2. Writer: WBT3 (Bengali Sub Team 2: Sayantika, Sreetama, Deepsita)

3. Short Explanation: We created a Wikipedia page on 'Sport in South Korea' in Bengali. South Korea has traditional sports of its own, as well as sports from different cultures and countries. Baseball and Football have traditionally been regarded as the most popular sports in Korea.

4. Link: Sport in South Korea (দক্ষিণ কোরিয়ায় খেলাধুলা)