वर्ल्ड ताइक्वांडो फेडरेशन की स्थापना 28 मई, 1973 को कुक्कीवोन में हुई इसकी उद्घाटन बैठक में दुनिया भर के 35 प्रतिनिधियों की भागीदारी के साथ हुई थी। अप्रैल 2022 तक 212 सदस्य देश हैं। 2004 के बाद से, चाउ चुंग-वोन विश्व तायक्वोंडो के अध्यक्ष रहे हैं, पहले राष्ट्रपति किम उन-योंग के बाद।
17 जुलाई, 1980 को अंतरराष्ट्रीय ओलंपिक समिति ने मास्को, रूस में अपने 83वें सत्र में वर्ल्ड ताइक्वांडो को मान्यता दी। तायक्वोंडो ने सियोल, दक्षिण कोरिया में 1988 के ग्रीष्मकालीन ओलंपिक के प्रदर्शन खेल के रूप में शुरुआत की। 4 सितंबर, 1994 को पेरिस में 103वें आईओसी सत्र में ताइक्वांडो को 2000 के ग्रीष्मकालीन ओलंपिक के आधिकारिक खेल के रूप में अपनाया गया था। फ्रांस। विश्व ताइक्वांडो के अनुसार, तायक्वोंडो सबसे व्यवस्थित और वैज्ञानिक कोरियाई पारंपरिक मार्शल आर्ट में से एक है, जो शारीरिक लड़ाई कौशल से अधिक सिखाता है। यह एक अनुशासन है जो हमारे शरीर और दिमाग को प्रशिक्षित करके हमारी आत्मा और जीवन को बढ़ाने के तरीके दिखाता है। आज, यह एक वैश्विक खेल बन गया है जिसने एक अंतरराष्ट्रीय ख्याति प्राप्त की है, और ओलंपिक में आधिकारिक खेलों में से एक है। जून 2017 में शरीर का नाम बदलकर वर्ल्ड तायक्वोंडो कर दिया गया ताकि आम इंटरनेट स्लैंग WTF से जुड़े संक्षिप्त नाम के "नकारात्मक अर्थ" से बचा जा सके। संगठनात्मक संरचना विश्व तायक्वोंडो के मुख्य घटक निम्नलिखित हैं: महासभा (जीए); विश्व तायक्वोंडो परिषद; राष्ट्रपति और सचिवालय। इसके मुख्य घटकों के अलावा वर्ल्ड ताइक्वांडो में अन्य संगठन भी शामिल हैं जिन्हें परिषद और जीए द्वारा विधिवत अधिकृत या मान्यता प्राप्त है और जो वर्ल्ड ताइक्वांडो के तत्वावधान में काम करते हैं। विश्व तायक्वोंडो-मान्यता प्राप्त या अधिकृत संगठनों में शामिल हैं, लेकिन महाद्वीपीय संघों तक सीमित नहीं हैं। महासभा विश्व तायक्वोंडो की परिषद और एमएनए के प्रतिनिधियों की आम बैठक है। जीए विश्व तायक्वोंडो का सर्वोच्च निर्णय लेने वाला अंग है। इसके निर्णय अंतिम होते हैं, जबकि परिषद में अध्यक्ष, उपाध्यक्ष, महासचिव, कोषाध्यक्ष और परिषद के सदस्य होते हैं। परिषद की जिम्मेदारियां उदाहरण के लिए विश्व तायक्वोंडो संगठन और संचालन की योजना और प्रबंधन और वित्तीय बजट और वित्तीय रिपोर्टों पर नियंत्रण हैं। राष्ट्रपति को जीए द्वारा अपने सदस्यों में से चार साल की अवधि के लिए चुना जाता है। राष्ट्रपति को वर्ल्ड ताइक्वांडो का नेतृत्व और प्रतिनिधित्व करना चाहिए; जीए और परिषद को इसके अध्यक्ष के रूप में समवर्ती रूप से नेतृत्व करते हैं, और बैठकों और अन्य गतिविधियों की अध्यक्षता करते हैं साथ ही तायक्वोंडो और विश्व तायक्वोंडो संचालन के खेल के विकास की बेहतरी के लिए तदर्थ आधार पर उपाध्यक्षों को आधिकारिक कर्तव्यों को नामित करते हैं। इसके अलावा, राष्ट्रपति विश्व तायक्वोंडो समितियों के अध्यक्षों और सदस्यों की नियुक्ति करता है। अंत में, राष्ट्रपति और महासचिव के सचिवीय मामलों और कर्तव्यों के निष्पादन के लिए विश्व ताइक्वांडो मुख्यालय के स्थान पर विश्व तायक्वोंडो का सचिवालय स्थापित किया गया।
विश्व तायक्वोंडो का मिशन तायक्वोंडो को एक ओलंपिक खेल और पैरालंपिक खेल के रूप में प्रभावी अंतर्राष्ट्रीय शासन प्रदान करना है। विश्व तायक्वोंडो के परिकल्पित उद्देश्य दुनिया भर में अपने शैक्षिक, सांस्कृतिक और खेल मूल्यों ("ताइक्वांडो आंदोलन") के आलोक में तायक्वोंडो के अभ्यास को बढ़ावा देना, विस्तार करना और सुधारना और साथ ही निष्पक्ष खेल, युवा विकास और शिक्षा को बढ़ावा देना है। खेलों में भागीदारी के माध्यम से शांति और सहयोग को प्रोत्साहित करने के लिए। इसके अलावा, विश्व तायक्वोंडो अंतरराष्ट्रीय तायक्वोंडो प्रतियोगिताओं को बढ़ावा देना या मंजूरी देना चाहता है और उन विश्व तायक्वोंडो से संबंधित ताइक्वांडो प्रतियोगिताओं को विनियमित करने वाले तकनीकी नियमों में लगातार सुधार करने का संकल्प करता है और ओलंपिक खेलों और पैरालंपिक खेलों के ताइक्वांडो आयोजन सहित वर्ल्ड ताइक्वांडो द्वारा स्वीकृत या प्रचारित पूमसे प्रतियोगिताओं को नियंत्रित करता है। इसके अलावा, विश्व तायक्वोंडो एकता को मजबूत करने और विश्व तायक्वोंडो और तायक्वोंडो आंदोलन के हितों की रक्षा करने के साथ-साथ उपरोक्त उद्देश्यों के समर्थन में अन्य गतिविधियों में शामिल होने के लिए कार्रवाई करना चाहता है। वर्ल्ड ताइक्वांडो वर्ल्ड ताइक्वांडो अकादमी, वर्ल्ड ताइक्वांडो पीस कॉर्प्स, वर्ल्ड ताइक्वांडो डिमॉन्स्ट्रेशन टीम, प्रो ताइक्वांडो फेडरेशन, ग्लोबल ताइक्वांडो सपोर्ट फेडरेशन और ताइक्वांडो इंटरनेशनल फेडरेशन सहित स्वतंत्र संबद्ध संगठनों के सहयोग से अपने मिशन और उद्देश्यों को पूरा करता है।
सदस्यता 2022 तक, विश्व तायक्वोंडो की वैश्विक सदस्यता 212 राष्ट्रीय सदस्य संघों में है, जो पांच महाद्वीपों में फैले हुए हैं। महाद्वीपीय संघ पैन अमेरिकन तायक्वोंडो यूनियन (पीएटीयू) 45 राष्ट्रीय सदस्य संघ यूरोपीय तायक्वोंडो संघ (ETU) 51 राष्ट्रीय सदस्य संघ अफ्रीकी तायक्वोंडो संघ (एएफटीयू) 52 राष्ट्रीय सदस्य संघ एशियाई तायक्वोंडो संघ (एटीयू) 43 राष्ट्रीय सदस्य संघ ओशिनिया तायक्वोंडो संघ (OTU) 19 सदस्यीय राष्ट्रीय संघ
डब्ल्यूटी वर्ल्ड रैंकिंग
2017 में स्थापित नियमों के अनुसार, प्रतियोगिताओं के लिए एक नई ग्रेडिंग की व्यवस्था की गई है जो सर्वश्रेष्ठ स्थान पाने वाले एथलीटों को अंक प्रदान करेगी। पहले अधिकतम G10 था, अब इसे दोगुना करके G20 कर दिया गया है। टूर्नामेंट के "जी" मान का उपयोग यह गणना करने के लिए किया जाता है कि टूर्नामेंट जीतने के लिए एथलीट को कितने अंक दिए जाते हैं। उदाहरण के लिए, G-20 टूर्नामेंट के रूप में ओलंपिक का मूल्य एथलीट को कॉन्टिनेंटल चैंपियनशिप (G-4 टूर्नामेंट) के मुकाबले पांच गुना अधिक है। डब्ल्यूटी रैंकिंग-पॉइंट्स प्रतियोगिता में प्रतिस्पर्धा करने के लिए एथलीटों को एक वैश्विक लाइसेंस की आवश्यकता होती है, जो उन्हें टूर्नामेंट की मेजबानी करने वाले किसी भी देश पर अंक सुरक्षित करने की अनुमति देता है और यह डब्ल्यूटी से संबद्ध है। एथलीटों को दिए गए अंक निम्नलिखित सूत्र के अंतर्गत दिए गए हैं: टूर्नामेंट x टूर्नामेंट के ग्रेड के भीतर एथलीट का रैंक जहां, आम तौर पर, ग्रीष्मकालीन ओलंपिक को छोड़कर जहां खिलाड़ी रेपेचेज के कारण एक ही स्थान पर टाई करते हैं: पहले स्थान पर रहने वाले एथलीट को टूर्नामेंट में 10 का "रैंक" कहा जाता है कहा जाता है कि टूर्नामेंट में दूसरे स्थान पर रहने वाले एथलीट की रैंक 6 है (प्रथम स्थान का 60%) तीसरे स्थान के एथलीट को टूर्नामेंट के भीतर 3.6 की रैंक (दूसरे स्थान का 60%) कहा जाता है। कहा जाता है कि चौथे स्थान के एथलीट का टूर्नामेंट में रैंक 2.16 है (तीसरे स्थान का 60%) इसके बाद (आम तौर पर) इस्तेमाल किया जाने वाला प्रतिशत 60% के बजाय 70% है उदाहरण: एक एथलीट G-8 इवेंट में तीसरे स्थान पर है। तब एथलीट को सम्मानित किया जाता है: (10 अंक x 60% x 60%) x 8 = 28.8 अंक। एथलीट पॉइंट्स का आकर्षण जब किसी एथलीट को रैंकिंग-प्वाइंट टूर्नामेंट में अंक दिए जाते हैं, तो वे अंक उस एथलीट से चार साल तक जुड़े रहते हैं। चार साल की अवधि के दौरान, प्रत्येक पूर्ण वर्ष के बाद एथलीट रैंक से शुरुआती अंकों के 25% अंक काटे जाते हैं। 62027sunny (वार्ता) 04:58, 30 अप्रैल 2023 (UTC)
• Topic: Jang Ja Yeon (जंग जा-योन)
• Writer: Shreya Bharti, Devitt Khuallalmuan Ngaihte
जंग जा-योन (कोरियाई: 장자연; 25 जनवरी 1980 - 7 मार्च 2009) एक दक्षिण कोरियाई अभिनेत्री थीं। उनका जन्म दक्षिण कोरिया के उत्तरी जिओला प्रांत के जियोंगअप में हुआ था। 2006 में एक टेलीविजन विज्ञापन में दिखाई देने पर उन्होंने मनोरंजन उद्योग में शुरुआत की। वह अपनी मृत्यु के समय केबीएस टेलीविजन नाटक श्रृंखला बॉयज़ ओवर फ्लावर्स में सनी के रूप में जानी जाती थी, जो श्रृंखला के प्रतिपक्षी में से एक थी। 7 मार्च 2009 को 29 वर्ष की आयु में आत्महत्या करके उनकी मृत्यु हो गई।
जन्म : 25 जनवरी 1980 Jeongeup, उत्तरी जिओला प्रांत, दक्षिण कोरिया
मृत : 7 मार्च 2009 (आयु 29)
सेओंगनाम, ग्योंगगी प्रांत, दक्षिण कोरिया
मृत्यु का कारण: फांसी से आत्महत्या
पेशा : अभिनेत्री
सक्रिय वर्ष: 2006-2009
कोरियाई नाम : जंग जा-योन
उसकी मृत्यु के समय, जंग अवसाद से पीड़ित थी, और 2019 में यह पता चला कि 2009 में उसकी मृत्यु की प्रारंभिक जाँच भ्रष्ट थी।  2009 की जांच ने निष्कर्ष निकाला था कि उसकी मौत एक आत्महत्या थी, लेकिन 2018 में जांच को फिर से खोल दिया गया।  उनकी मृत्यु ने 2009 में एक राष्ट्रीय घोटाले का कारण बना, जब यह व्यापक रूप से बताया गया कि उनके करियर के दौरान कई प्रमुख मनोरंजन अधिकारियों द्वारा उनका यौन और शारीरिक शोषण किया गया था, जिसमें जंग की पूर्व प्रतिभा एजेंसी, द कॉन्टेंट्स एंटरटेनमेंट, किम सुंग-हून के सीईओ भी शामिल थे।  सीईओ के खिलाफ तीन गवाहों की गवाही के बाद, किम को कोरियाई अदालतों द्वारा दुर्व्यवहार का दोषी पाया गया, विशेष रूप से उनकी एजेंसी की लड़कियों को उनकी जन्मदिन की पार्टी में आने के लिए मजबूर करने के लिए जहां उन्होंने उन्हें अधिकारियों का यौन मनोरंजन करने के लिए मजबूर किया।
2006-2009: बॉयज़ ओवर फ्लावर्स के साथ अभिनय की शुरुआत|
जैंग ने 2006 में एक टेलीविजन विज्ञापन में अपनी शुरुआत की।  उन्हें बड़ा ब्रेक बॉयज़ ओवर फ्लावर्स में सनी की भूमिका निभाते हुए मिला, जो लड़कियों की तिकड़ी में से एक है, जो कू ह्य-सन द्वारा निभाई गई महिला प्रधान भूमिका का विरोध करती है। अपनी मृत्यु के समय, जैंग अपनी पहली दो फिल्मों, वे आ रहे हैं और पेंटहाउस एलिफेंट की रिलीज का इंतजार कर रहे थे।
जैंग को अपनी प्रबंधन एजेंसी के साथ कठिनाइयों के लिए जाना जाता था।
1999 में एक यातायात दुर्घटना में उसके माता-पिता की मृत्यु के बाद से जंग अपनी बड़ी बहन और छोटे भाई के साथ रह रही थी।  अपनी मृत्यु से पहले, जैंग नैदानिक अवसाद से पीड़ित थी और पिछले वर्ष के दौरान उसने अपनी स्थिति के लिए चिकित्सा उपचार प्राप्त किया था।
मौत और बाद में जांच
जंग ने आत्महत्या कर ली। वह 7 मार्च 2009 को ग्योंगगी प्रांत के सेओंगनाम के बुंदांग जिले में अपने घर में लटकी पाई गई थी। दोपहर 3:30 बजे एक फोन कॉल के दौरान। उस दोपहर, जैंग ने अपनी बहन से "अत्यधिक तनाव" के बारे में शिकायत करते हुए कहा था कि वह "मरना चाहती है"।  बाद में फोन पर उससे संपर्क नहीं हो पाने के कारण, जंग की बहन शाम 7:42 बजे अपने साझा घर लौट आई। उसके शरीर को सीढ़ी रेलिंग से लटका हुआ पाया। 
एक पुलिस जांच ने निष्कर्ष निकाला कि उसकी मौत एक आत्महत्या थी, और किसी भी तरह की साजिश का कोई सबूत नहीं मिला। माना जाता है कि जैंग ने शाम करीब 4:30 बजे आत्महत्या कर ली थी।
व्यापक दक्षिण कोरियाई मनोरंजन समाचार रिपोर्टों के अनुसार, यह माना जाता था कि जंग ने दावा किया था कि उसके एजेंट किम सुंग-हून ने उसे नियमित रूप से पीटा था और उसे निदेशकों, मीडिया अधिकारियों और सीईओ सहित कई वीआईपी के साथ सोने के लिए मजबूर किया था। किम सुंग-हून, जो जापान में थे, ने आरोपों से इनकार किया।  यह अपुष्ट था कि जैंग ने एक 7-पेज का नोट लिखा जिसमें मीडिया अधिकारियों, सीईओ और निदेशकों के कम से कम 31 नामों को सूचीबद्ध किया गया था, जिसमें उसने दावा किया था कि उसके साथ यौन संबंध बनाने के लिए मजबूर किया गया था। दक्षिण कोरियाई पुलिस ने पूरी सूची दबा दी है।  बाद में, यह भी बताया गया कि 7 पन्नों का नोट शायद खुद जंग ने नहीं लिखा होगा।
जंग की प्रबंधन एजेंसी के पूर्व प्रबंधक, किम सुंग-हून को जून 2009 में टोक्यो, जापान में अपने वीजा से अधिक रहने के लिए गिरफ्तार किया गया था। जंग की मौत से संबंधित वारंट पर कोरियाई पुलिस ने किम के प्रत्यर्पण का अनुरोध किया। अपनी गिरफ्तारी के समय, किम ने कहा कि उसने "दक्षिण कोरिया में एक अपराध किया और गिरफ्तार होने से बचने के लिए जापान में अधिक समय तक रहा।"  पुलिस द्वारा बीस आंकड़ों की जांच की गई, जिसके परिणामस्वरूप सात अभियोग चलाए गए। किम को एक साल की जेल, दो साल की परिवीक्षा और 160 घंटे की सामुदायिक सेवा की सजा सुनाई गई थी। 
जैंग की मृत्यु के दिन लगभग 250,000 प्रशंसकों ने अपनी संवेदना व्यक्त करने के लिए जैंग की वेबसाइट का दौरा किया, अगले दिन 700,000 से अधिक प्रशंसकों ने साइट का दौरा किया,  जबकि बॉयज़ ओवर फ्लावर्स के पूरे कलाकारों ने शोक हॉल में अपना अंतिम सम्मान दिया। बुंदांग में सियोल नेशनल यूनिवर्सिटी अस्पताल।  जैंग का अंतिम संस्कार 9 मार्च को वहां आयोजित किया गया था, और इसमें परिवार, दोस्तों और साथी कलाकारों ने भाग लिया था, जिसमें बॉयज़ ओवर फ्लावर्स के प्रमुख कू हय-सन शामिल थे। उसके अंतिम संस्कार के अवशेषों को उसके माता-पिता के बगल में उत्तरी जिओला प्रांत के जियोंगअप में दफनाया गया था
2019 में, राष्ट्रपति मून जे-इन ने जंग के मामले में पूरी तरह से फिर से जांच जारी की और साथ ही बर्निंग सन स्कैंडल और न्याय मंत्रालय के पूर्व उच्च पदस्थ अधिकारी किम हाक-यूई के सेक्स स्कैंडल की उचित जांच की। जैंग के पूर्व लेबलमेट, यूं जी-ओह, जंग की मौत की फिर से शुरू की गई जांच के परिणामस्वरूप एजेंसी द्वारा जंग के साथ किए गए दुर्व्यवहार के बारे में अपनी गवाही के साथ सार्वजनिक रूप से आगे आए। बाद में, जंग के पूर्व प्रेमी, श्री चोई, यून के इरादे पर शक करने के लिए आगे आए, जब वह जंग की मौत के बारे में अपनी किताब का प्रचार कर रही थी और मामले के बारे में अपने क्राउडफंडिंग खातों पर धन दान भी प्राप्त कर रही थी। चोई ने यून पर आरोप लगाया कि वह जंग की दोस्त नहीं थी और जब जंग जीवित थी तो उसने कभी यूं का नाम नहीं सुना। यून की गवाही वर्षों से सुसंगत नहीं थी और उसके झूठ, मानहानि और धोखाधड़ी के अन्य आरोपों के कारण, दक्षिण कोरियाई सरकार ने अक्टूबर 2019 से यून पर 3 गिरफ्तारी वारंट जारी किए हैं, जिसमें अंतर्राष्ट्रीय आपराधिक पुलिस एजेंसी (आईसीपीओ, इंटरपोल) द्वारा एक रेड गिरफ्तारी वारंट शामिल है। ) मुकदमों के लिए यून को वापस दक्षिण कोरिया बुलाने के लिए।      यून इस समय कनाडा में हैं। यून पर दक्षिण कोरिया के लोगों द्वारा मुकदमा भी चलाया जा रहा है जिन्होंने उसे पैसे दान किए थे।
जंग के मामले के विवाद और जंग की मौत के बाद से फैली अफवाहों के कारण, मीडिया के सभी आरोपों को शामिल किसी भी आंकड़े पर आरोपों को दबाने के सबूत के रूप में इस्तेमाल नहीं किया जा सका। इस प्रकार, जंग के पूर्व प्रबंधक, किम सुंग-हून एकमात्र व्यक्ति हैं जिन्हें इस मामले में अब तक गिरफ्तार किया गया है।
उनके मामले ने 2013 की फिल्म नोरिगे को प्रेरित किया।
वर्ष शीर्षक भूमिका संदर्भ।
2009 बॉयज़ ओवर फ्लावर्स सनी 
वर्ष शीर्षक भूमिका संदर्भ।
2009 हाथी हाय-मील की खोज 
मिस्टर जे मिन-ए का अजीब मिसिंग केस 
1> TOPIC: RECENT IMPORTANT DECISIONS ON “VIOLATION OF THE ACT ON SPECIAL CASES CONCERNING THE PUNISHMENT, ETC OF SEXUAL CRIMES” MADE BY THE SUPREME COURT OF KOREA.
2> WRITER: SANHITA BOSE, SUMAIRA RAHMAN, MADHUMITA BODAK , MIMLI CHATTERJEE
3>BEIEF SUMMARY: This project deals with two important cases from the Supreme Court of Korea corresponding to sexual crimes and the punishment in regards to it.
The Judiciary of South Korea(대한민국사법부) comprises primarily of two major courts, The Supreme Court (대한민국대법원)and the Constitutional Court(대한민국헌법재판소). The Supreme Court of Korea was established in 1948 under chapter V of the Constitution of South Korea. It is located in Seocho, Seoul. It is considered the last resort or the topmost court in terms of cases requiring judicial review coming from the ordinary courts and the military courts. Its decision is considered final in this regard.
But it cannot interfere in the exceptional cases which CH-VI of the Constitution of Korea has granted the power to the Constitutional Court. These cases include Impeachment, Judicial review, Dissolution of Unconstitutional Political Parties, Competence dispute among government agencies etc.
The member-count of this top court is 14 including the Chief Justice of Korea where the Chief Justice of Korea is appointed by the President with the consent of the National Assembly, while for the associate justices, they must be nominated by the Chief Justice as well. The term of serving of the Chief Justice in six years which is further renewable. The age of retirement is held to be 70.
Discussed below are certain recent Supreme Court of Korea decisions pertaining to the “Violation of the Act on Special Cases Concerning the Punishment, etc of Sexual Crimes”: -
The S.C Decision No- 2016D04404 on the case 2016Jeondo49 was made on February 25,2021.
The offender was found to be violating “The Act on Special Cases Concerning the Punishment”, etc of Sexual crimes under the pretext of “Rape; Attempted Rape”, “Sexual Intercourse by Deceptive scheme” with persons with disabilities “Indecent Act by compulsion on persons with disabilities”. An order has been discharged to ‘Attach Electronic Monitoring Device.’
The case has been made to determine;
(i)The meaning in a detailed sense of “a person with a physical disability” as entailed in Article 6 of the “Act on Special cases Concerning the Punishment etc. of Sexual crimes and the standards by which the extent of physical disability can be determined.
(ii) It also raised the question whether for the offender to be pronounced guilty, he should have recognized the physical disability of the victim at the time of the crime or not.
SUMMARY OF THE DECISION:-
•According to the decision made “Persons with physical disabilities” according to Article 6 of the Sexual Violence Punishment Act were considered as “Persons whose daily lives or social activities are substantially hampered by physical functions, features, etc”.The order also took into account Article 6 of the Sexual Violence Punishment Act which was amended on November 17,2011 which extended its jurisdiction to punishment for rape or any indecent act by compulsion on a female or victim with physical disability, apart from punishing rape on indecent act by compulsion on “A female or person who is in a state of inability to resist due to physical or mental disability in accordance with the Act’s older version enacted on April 15,2010). This was done to protect people with disabilities whose time span of reacting or recognizing for self defence is much lower than that of a person without any disability.
▪Article 2 of the Act on Welfare of Persons with Disabilities; Article 2 of the Act on the Prohibition of Discrimination against persons with Disabilities, Remedy against Infringement of their Right formed the foundation of the decision of this case in defining the term “Person with Disability”. Article 8 of the Act on the protection of children and youth against sex offense too sheds light into the meaning of “children and youth with disabilities”.
•The order also stated that since physical disability varies from person to person the victim should not be readily considered to be without any physical ability from the point of view of a person without disability.
•As for the part involving whether the offender should have recognized the physical disability of a person at the time of crime or not, the order affirmed that the guilty should have recognized the physical disability of the victim for the punishment to be discharged in its full effect.
The Supreme Court Decision on 2020D10729 was made on November 26, 2020. It is a case categorized under “Violation of the Act on Special Cases”, Concerning the Punishment, etc of Sexual Crimes (Taking Pictures by Using Camera, etc.).
This case is made to enquire the court regarding the provisions in the following case scenarios:-
- Whether it is provided anywhere if the criminal defendant or his/her defence counsel can participate during the process of a search and seizure by an investigative institution in order to prevent duplication of electronic information which are not related to the case or the suspicious facts, when the copies of storage, media, hard copies, images, etc are taken to the investigative institution’s office .Whether the storage media can be searched, duplicated and printed out for the purpose of the relevant case, and whether such search can be considered as legitimate when the criminal defendant or his defencecounsel were not given the provision of participation.
- If during the seizure the criminal defendant and his defence counsel were not allowed participation and the investigative force searched, duplicated, and printed out e-information related to the facts of suspicion,in that casewill the provision stated for (i) be still applicable?
- Whether Articles 219 and 121 of the Criminal Procedure Act guaranteeing the right of the defence council to participate during the seizure by investigative forces, relates to the inherent powers provided to the defence council in order to protect the criminal defendant.
- Whetherthe defencecounsel should be notified separately about the date, time and place of seizure, to ensure an opportunity to the defence counsel to participate during the process of search when the arrested clearly states that he does not intend to be present during the process.
- The purpose of the principle of exclusion of the evidence obtained during an unlawful search violating the standard procedures as stated in the Article 308-2 of the Criminal Procedure Act.Whether such evidences and the secondary evidence found based on them can be considered aslegitimate evidence, and what must be the standard of judgment in such cases where principle of exclusion is applied to admit such exceptional evidences i.e.,Ones which violate the rights of participation to the defence counsel and the arrested during an investigative search,which might be considered illegitimate in other cases.
SUMMARY OF THE DECISION:-
When a warrant of seizure and search is issued by the investigative force, there are certain acts which are present to protect the basic human rights of the arrested. Theseareensured to preventany seizure and search which are unlawful in nature and breaches the human rights of the arrested.
Articles 219 and 121 of the Criminal Procedure Act guarantees the right to the arrested/ or his defence counsel to be present during the process of search in order to prevent any duplication of electronic information. This holds true even when copies of e-information are moved to the investigation office.
Exceptions can be made only under special circumstances, such as at the time when the arrested does not wish to be present during the search.
Despite that, the defence counsel needs to be made aware of the date, time and place of execution of the search in accordance with Articles 219 and 121 of the Criminal Procedure which guarantees the right of the defence counsel to participate so that he/she can defend the arrested.
If the above processes are not followed, the evidence obtained in the process will be considered illegitimate and therefore cannot be produced. Article 308-2 of the Criminal Procedure Act says that “any evidence obtained in violation of the due process shall not be admissible.”
Article 12 of the Constitution of the Republic of Korea provides that the procedure of seizure and search after the warrant is issued must guarantee the basic human rights. Thereby, there are certain specific standards pertaining to seizure and search validated by the Criminal Procedure Act, so that the substantial truth can be clarified, while simultaneously upholding an individual’s/criminal suspect’s personal rights.
However, there are certain exceptions, where to satisfy the ultimate goal of bringing the truth into light/ or to clarify the truth aligned with the purpose of Constitution and the Criminal Act.
If the violations of the standard procedure during the search and seizure does not infringe the substantial contents involved in the process/ found in the due process, or in an exceptional case, where even though it might be considered as contravening the Constitution and the Criminal Act, but act as a means for aligning the evidence and the clarification of the substantial truth, then such evidences can be used as evidence of guilt.
An application of the above exception can be found in the Uijeongbu District Court decision 2020 No.481 that was decided on July 16th, 2020. In this case, the criminal defendant videotaped victims at the restroom of “o o Karaoke Bar” a total 296 number of times from the period of 2013 to 2019. This included photographing the buttocks and genitals of an unidentified woman while she used the restroom; date and time unknown. Therefore, it can be considered that the criminal defendant recorded an inappropriate video of someone else’s body, which may flame up sexual appetite in people or cause him/her shame. Additionally, all of this is done against the individuals will or knowledge by using cameras and other mechanisms which have similar features to the former, i.e., cameras.
This decision reversed the judgement of the lower court which in turn reversed the first instance judgement of pronouncing the criminal defendant guilty.
The reasons which form the basis of the lower court’s judgement are as follows: -
- The public defender was not informed by the investigative institution regarding the date, time and place of execution of the search issued, following the warrant on October 30th. Moreover, during that time the criminal defendant was under detention and thereby was not present during the search. Both of these instances violate the rights guaranteed by Article 219 and 121 of the Criminal Procedure Act.
- Since the standard procedures were not followed during the search, according to the Article 308-2, the evidence obtained shall be considered illegitimate and cannot be produced as evidence of guilt.
Even the criminal defendant’s confession will not be considered since it was made after the investigative institution obtained the evidence by unlawful seizures.
The lower judgement was made on the following factual basis: -
- On October 25th, 2019 around 9:00 AM, Non-Indicted Party 1 a judicial police officer (Lieutenant), seized the mainframe of a computer and a Galaxy Note 8 cell phone of the criminal defendant and took them to the police station following a search warrant issued by the judge of the Uijeongbu District Court dated, 24th October 2019.
- The criminal defendant, despite being given a chance of participation during the process of search and seizure, willingly decided not to participate in the process by signing and putting his thumbprint on the document provided.
- During the first police interrogation, he admitted to have taken photograph of various women’s genitals by using hidden cameras and fixing them to the outer part of trash cans placed inside restrooms of various karaoke bars. He has been doing this since the last 4 to 5 years and saved these inappropriate videos to the hard disk of the computer that had been seized on 25th October 2019.
- On finding multiple video files, taken by the criminal defendant, in the computer seized by the Non-IndictedParty 1,Non-Indicted Party 2, who is a Senior Patrol Officer of the Uijeongbu Police Station, prepared an investigation report. He also attached the photos of the screen inside the folder where the video files were stored.
- On October 25th, 2019, the judge of Uijeongbu issued an arrest warrant after interrogating the criminal defendant. The non-indicted Party 3 attorney was appointed on 26th October 2019 before the arrest of the criminal defendant.
- On 29th October 2019, on being interrogated by the judicial police officers, the criminal defendant revealed the crime sites from the year 2011 to 2019, where he videotaped victims by using hidden cameras in the restroom of 6 places, including Internet cafes, hospitals, karaoke bars, etc. All of these video tapes have been mentioned in the investigation report.
- On 30th October 2019, Non-Indicted Party 1 Lieutenant, Non-Indicted Party 4 Sergeant, and Non-Indicted Party 2 Senior Patrol Officer of the Uijeongbu Police Station, each investigated one out of the three hard disks of the seized computer in their office respectively. Then they printed out information i.e., the images taken after capturing the scenes of the inappropriate videos taken by the CD, and replayed them, (one scene of each video file).
- But it was true that the investigative institution did not notify the public defender about the Search and seizure process in which the computer was seized and also when the information from the seized computer was printed out to form evidences against the criminal defendant.
The conclusion drawn by the Supreme Court are as follows: -
- The lower court made a decision within the bounds of the legal doctrine since the standard procedure of seizure and search were indeed violated by the investigative institution by not notifying the public defender of the time,date and location of the search before searching, copying and printing out information from the seized computer.
- But the facts and records reveal that this violation of procedure did not cause any infringement of the substantial contents during the process. Therefore these evidences can be produced before the court since it falls under the category of exceptional cases which follows the” Principle of Exclusion”. Thus the videos found in the seized computer will be considered legitimate despite the breach in the standard procedure of search and seizure by the investigative institution.
The principle of exclusion could be applied in this case due to the following reasons as provided by the Supreme Court of Korea:-
- The defence counsel was appointed on 26thOctober 2019 after the procedure of search by the investigative institution has already been initiated. And also by then an arrest warrant had already been issued against the criminal defendant and on being interrogated by the court he had already affirmed that that the illegally filmed videos were saved in the seized computer. Therefore even though the investigative institution made sure to provide the provision of participation to the arrested before initiating the search ,it could not notify the public defender.
- Surely, they should have notified the defence counsel later on after the defence counsel’s appointment but as it is observed it was not the case. However the fact that neither did the public defender ask to be given the provision to exercise his/her right of participation nor did he inquire about the progress of the investigative search must also be taken under consideration.
- It was also to be noted that no such prior precedents were set before where the investigative institution had to provide a separate advance notice to the defence counsel in case he/she is appointed after the investigative search had already begun .So, on 30thOctober 2019 when Non-Indicted Party 1 Lieutenant ,Non-Indicted Party 2 Sergeant and Non-Indicted Party 3 Senior Patrol Officer investigated the hard disks of the seized computer, they still did not notify the public defender since he/she was appointed on 26thOctober2019; a day after the process of search and seizure had already begun.
- The most crucial point of the case is that the criminal defendant admitted his crime before the investigative institution and court after the investigative institution found evidence videos of more than hundreds of persons that were filmed illegally via hidden cameras in the restrooms of internet cafes and karaoke bars from the year 2011 and therefore was prosecuted in 296 such criminal cases.
Keeping in mind all the above observations the Supreme Court reversed the lower judgement which pronounced the arrested “not guilty” and remanded this part of the case to the lower court so that it can further the proceedings in accordance with this opinion.
A Glossary of Romanization of Korean
1. Topic: India's Role in the Korean War
2. Writer: Srayeta Bhowmik
3. Short Explanation: Detailed writeup on India's part in the Korean War of 1950.
4. Wikipedia Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Draft:India%27s_role_in_the_Korean_War
5. The Whole Article:
The Korean War was one of the most dramatic and life turning events during the cold war, which could have led to World War-III. The war, which dated from June 25, 1950 - July 27, 1953, was a conflict between the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) and Republic of Korea (South Korea). North Korea, who was supplied and advised by the Soviet Union, invaded the South. The United Nations with United States being the principal participant, joined the war aiding the South Koreans. The struggle ended in July,1953 with a million casualties on both sides and Korea still divided into two different states. The front line has been considered as the de facto border between North and South Korea ever since 1954's negotiations failed to achieve a further agreement.
ROLE OF OTHER COUNTRIES IN THE WAR
The U.S.-Soviet agreement had decided to temporarily divide Korea into two halves along the 38th parallel to oversee the removal of Japanese forces who ruled over Korea since 1910. The Soviet Union occupied the north of Korea, and the U.S. instantly sent their troops to the south, resulting in the Japanese troops surrendering to the Russians in the north and Americans in the south. Kim Il Sung (김일성) received the help of the Soviet Union and set up a communist government in the north. A rival government was established in the South by Lee Seungman (이승만) while maintaining close ties with the United States.
On June 25th,1950 when North Korean forces crossed the 38th parallel, with the support of the Soviet Union, to invade South Korea, the U.S. immediately pressed for the United Nations to act. The United Nations issued resolutions on June 25 and June 27 calling for a truce and requesting that all members aid South Korea. As a result of the Soviet Union's recent boycott and decision to abstain, the UN Security Council was able to adopt these measures. The U.S. occupying South Korea beforehand, to remove Japanese rule in Korea had a huge role to play in the later war.
President Harry.S.Truman had not press for a Congressional declaration of war. He declared the Korean conflict as a ‘police action’ led by the UN, working under the authority of the Security Council,
and was not proclaimed as a war. Truman wanted to avoid a nuclear World War III at any costs and hence wanted to keep the Korean war at a limited scale but this decision of his led to certain repercussions.
During the Korean War, around 81,000 British service members were deployed. Following the United States' contribution to the UN response, this was the largest international contribution. Over 1,100 of them were killed in combat, thousands sustained injuries and 1,060 were made to suffer as prisoners of war. The government reported in 2018 that it thought 255 of the dead service members' remains were still in North Korea. This conflict has sometimes been referred to as the Forgotten War. A memorial to the British service members who served in Korea was unveiled outside the Ministry of Defense in London in 2014.
Chinese armed forces using the name, Chinese People’s Volunteer Army (CPV) crossed the Yalu River, which the Koreans call as Amnok (압록) River, to assist North Korean armies, in October 1950. They plighted in the Korean War, from the offensive side of the war after the U.S. troops crossed the 38th parallel. To expel the United Nations Command from the north of Korea and eventually unite the peninsula under communist rule, China dispatched a powerful expeditionary the armed forces. Initially, China had a passive reaction to the conflict in South Korea as it was especially disadvantageous for them, at that time to send troops to support North Korea with high inflation destabilizing the economy of People’s Republic of China. Adding to that, they had a severe lack of material resources after the World War. China’s decision to aid the Democratic Republic of Korea came from their response to “American aggression in the guise of the UN”. They feared that the American support to South Korea to defeat and invade North Korea was a part of the U.S. strategy to invade China as China is Korea’s neighbor.
ROLE OF INDIA IN THE KOREAN WAR
Since this war marks a major cornerstone in terms of world history, being one of the most substantial events in the pages of history, several countries engaged in the war, India being one of them. India was mostly on the neutral side, without taking any sides but Indian decision-makers reached the conclusion to get involved in the war with the purpose of preventing further assortment in the peninsula.
At the tangible, material level, India sent a medical unit named the 60th Para Field Ambulance, to assist and help those who were injured in the war. This unit consisted of 346 personnel, and they served for three and a half years there. 2,300 field surgeries were performed, and help was provided to 200,000 injured soldiers. Eventually, when the fight started to cease in 1953, 6000 soldiers were sent from India’s side to form the Custodian Force India (CFI). It was imposed with the task of taking care of the prisoners of war (POWs) and settle the concern of their repatriation.
Apart from helping with personnel and medical aid, India also played a key role, attempting to settle the war at the political and diplomatic level. There were two major clauses that influenced India’s stand in the war. The first being the aim to stifle the war and refrain it from escalating into something huge. Several occasions served as catalysts that could have led to the escalation of the war, such as the crossing of the 38th parallel by the North Korean forces, the designation of General Douglas MacArthur, as commander-of-chief for the UN forces, who was known for his aggressive commandment with an inclination to take the dispute to the enemy camp. Also, the crossing of the 38th parallel by the UN forces despite the warning given by China and the crossing of the Yalu River by the Chinese troops in November that year and their following crossing of the 38th crossing in December in 1950 added to the circumstances that added fuel to the escalation. India tried to stop any of these dangerous instances from giving the aggressive parties a pretext for doing more harm and shrinking the room for negotiation and moderation.
As mentioned before, India had a neutral standpoint in the war and supported the resolutions of the UN Security Council, without demonizing any party or measures that might have provoked or escalated the conflict. However, no support was shown by India towards the resolution put forward by the General Assembly that focused more on reuniting the two Koreas without giving any importance to resolving the conflict first. The General Assembly also clearly identified China as an aggressive party to the peninsula. India was of the opinion that finger pointing and name calling and targeting China might lead China to become hostile, rigid and would end up being the cause of great worry for the rest.
The second situation that guided India’s decision was upholding the principle of great power unity. It believed that the Security Council had to make space for all the big powers to join and work together and since People’s Republic of China (PRC) had no representation in the UN and the Soviet Union, not being a part of it either as a protest against China’s exclusion, India appealed for the PRC to be included in the Security Council and be able to jointly work towards the solving of the problem.
India strongly criticized the General Assembly for its conflicting ideals. The UN General Assembly was formed with the idea for “Uniting for Peace” resolution, but Soviet Union kept exercising veto option to any measure that might have been critical of the PRC in the Security Council. Since the General Assembly, at that time was greatly shaped according to the agendas of the United States and hence they use their clout and power to get resolutions passed that suited the US and would further their objectives. And in this way, the Security Council, which is the seat of great powers, were undermined. The need to end the war was realized when the hostilities started reducing in 1951. Now came the obstacle of repatriation of the prisoners of war. The UN favored “non-forced repatriation”, i.e., the POWs would have the full right to decide whether they want to return to their countries whereas the communists went for an “all for all” resolution where they favored the fact that all POWs will be sent back to their countries whether they are willing or not. Considering the potential of this opposing opinions to create problems, India due to its neutral standing, was made the chair of the five-nation Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission (NNRC). India succeeded in arriving to consensus which lead to the formation of the Korean Armistice Agreement (한국정전협정 / 조선정전협정). An armistice is a formal agreement between the warring parties to end the war. It doesn’t essentially mean the end of a war but more aptly, a cessation of hostilities and aggression while attempts are made to negotiate peace. This armistice brought a complete cessation of hostilities and was signed by the United States Army Lieutenant General William Harrison Jr. and General Mark W. Clark who were representing the United States, North Korea, or Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (조선민주주의인민공화국) leader Kim Il-Sung, General Nam Il (남일) who represented the Korean People’s Army (KPA) and Peng Dehuai who represented the Chinese People’s Voluntary Army. It was designed to "ensure a complete cessation of hostilities and of all acts of armed force in Korea until a final peaceful settlement is achieved." The NNRC investigated and took care of the repatriation of 20,000 POWs. NNRC’s tenure ended in the early 1954 and Indian forces received appreciation and praises internationally. At the end, NNRC was left with over 80 prisoners who did not wish to go to either of the Koreas. As an interim agreement, late. Jawaharlal Nehru decided to grant them abode in India.
The aftermath and postwar recovery have been different in the two parts of Korea.
South Korea which has been industrially behind than the North, suffered from further stagnation of the industrial base there. In 1953, a Mutual Defense Treaty was signed between South Korea and United States in which they agreed to provide mutual help in case of any external armed attack and this agreement allows the United States to station their troops with the permission of the South Korean government. In 1960, Seungman Lee resigned from his post of President and left for exile in the United States as that time, the April Revolution or the April 19 Revolution started, and students started protesting against Seungman Lee and his autocratic rule after the discovery of a dead body of a high school student who was killed by the police for demonstrating against rigged elections. Social stability was regained by Park Chung-hee’s (박정희) May 16 coup. South Korea provided soldiers to South Vietnam from 1965 to 1973 and was compensated by the United States with $235,560,000 in allowance and military purchases. Due to this, South Korea’s gross national income (GNP) became fivefold during the Vietnam war and gradually, South Korea, as a country industrialized and modernized. From the early 1960s through the mid-1990s, South Korea's economy grew at one of the quickest rates in the world. South Korea’s GDP per capita, in 1957 was lower than Ghana. By 2010, it was termed as a developed country and became the thirteenth in the world (Ghana being 86th).
After the war, North Korea was virtually destroyed in terms of them being a heavy industrial society. Kim Il-Sung requested the Soviet Union for financial and industrial support after the ceasefire. In September 1953, the Soviet government agreed to "cancel or postpone repayment for all ... outstanding debts" and pledged to provide North Korea with a billion rubles in financial aid, commercial machinery, and consumer products. In addition to providing 800 million yuan and promising trade cooperation, China also deployed in thousands of troops to help North Korea repair its devastated infrastructure. Contemporary North Korea remains underdeveloped.
1. Topic: Sarang Festival
2. Writers: Diyasha Datta, Sucheta Adhikary
3. Short Explanation: We created a Wikipedia page about Sarang Festival celebrated in Korea. It is a festival introduced by the Indian Embassy in the Republic of Korea to mainly spread awareness about India and celebrate the beauty of Indian culture.
4. Wikipedia link: Sarang Festival
What is Sarang?
India and Korea has shared a common history since the time immemorial. The diplomatic ties between the two countries were formally established in the year 1973. As a result of a major convergence of interests, mutual goodwill, and high-level exchange rates and supplies, India-RoK bilateral ties have advanced significantly and have genuinely taken on a multifaceted nature in recent years. The two countries have come much closer in terms of shared strategic partnerships, and trade, especially, in the fields of technology, entertainment, cosmetics and cuisines. The governments of both the nations have introduced several measures to strengthen the mutual relationship between the two countries including events to promote cultural exchange.
SARANG Festival was initiated in the year 2015 by the Indian Embassy in the Republic of Korea with a vision to spread awareness about India, especially among the Korean population, and celebrate the beauty of Indian culture on the Land of Morning Calm. Since its inception in 2015, SARANG has been held annually and has established itself as a notable Indian cultural festival, showcasing India's vibrant and diverse heritage. Since then, it has expanded in size, scope, and popularity, promoting India's soft power in the truest sense and adding to its rich civilizational legacy and cultural vibrancy. It is a celebration of India’s cultural dynamism that blends classical and contemporary offerings of music, dance, food, film and yoga. This initiative was taken by the Indian Embassy in Korea with an aim to create and build partnerships that endure.
Both Koreans and Indians have a deep connotation associated with the term "SARANG." In Korean, the word "Sarang" means "love," while for Indians, it stands for "diversity representing the various colours of India." The goal of encouraging participation in this festival is to highlight the rich cultural diversity of India as it is expressed via a variety of creative forms, such as dance, theater, music, cinema, and delicacies. This comprehensive portrayal of India and its culture has continued to grab the local Korean community's hearts and minds and deepen the love and affection between the two nations' populations. However, it is to be noted that the purpose of this festival is not only to showcase the range and diversity of the Indian culture to the friendly Korean people, but also to raise recognition and branding of Indian culture in the vibrant and competitive cultural world in Korea, as well as highlighting the similarities existing between the two countries.
It is hoped that this cultural extravaganza, which features dance, music, cinema, yoga, and a variety of other art forms, can aid in helping people in Korea who love India and Indian culture to reconnect with nature during these trying times.
Celebration Over the Years
Grand Opening in 2015
On the evening of November 9, 2015, the Festival of India, SARANG, was formally inaugurated in Seoul at the Millennium Hilton. The inaugural ceremony encompassed a 20-minute performance by the Drums of India ensemble, backed by the Ministry of Culture of India and a sponsor-supported Indian cuisine festival. 180 specially invited influential guests attended the event at the magical evening on that Monday, including senior corporate figures from Korea, cultural figures (including academics, cultural event managers, and some of Korea's most well-known TV, theatre, and pop music stars), government representatives, Korean media (in both English and Korean), diplomats, and members of the Indian community. An Jaechan, also known as Ryu Shihwa, a well-known Korean author and a longtime friend of India, also made his gracious presence at the event.
The Mission had staged two separate performances in Seoul on Tuesday, November 10, 2015, one showcasing the Drums of India Troupe while the other featuring an Odissi Dance Group in front of 150 spectators at Lotte Culture Hall, Yeongdeungpo (영등포).
On November 11, 2015, the Drums of India Troup presented a performance during the official launch of India's first Cultural Centre in Busan, Korea's second largest metropolis after its capital Seoul. An audience of around 300 individuals, including members of the local diplomatic corps, representatives from Busan's municipal administration and military garrison, the president and vice president of Tongmyong University, notable Indian academicians, and eminent business figures, witnessed the performance that Wednesday.
A series of events were hosted as a part of the first episode of the SARANG Festival that allowed showcasing the different colours India as the epitome of “sarang” and creating opportunities for an effective cultural exchange between the two nations. Following the performance on Wednesday by the Drums of India Troup on 11th, Bollywood Dance Workshops were organized for audiences of all ages and interest levels, by Gilles Chuyen, at three locations, Busan, Seoul and Chuncheon, to help the participants communicate with energy and fun that imbibes Indian Cinemas.
Bollywood in particular has charmed viewers for decades across geographies and through generations. The festival also featured a three-day (11–13 November 2015) Indian film screening event that featured six different Indian films, namely, Mary Kom (Sports Drama, 2014), OMG- Oh My God (Satirical Comedy Drama, 2012), Queen (Comedy Drama, 2014), Drishyam (Thriller Drama, 2015), Ankhon Dekhi (Comedy Drama, 2014), and Ship of Thesis (Drama, 2013). These films encompass family drama, the sordid urban underbelly, the fresh young romance, and of late the contemporary and complex Indian ethos.
On November 13, 2015, the Indian Ambassador, Vikram Doraiswami, addressed the audience gathered at the Hankuk University of Foreign Studies during the ongoing SARANG festival. Vikram Doraiswami had taken charge as the Ambassador of India to South Korea on 13 April 2015 and had been posted to various Indian Missions including Beijing, Johannesburg, and Tashkent. Through his lecture, he shared about his interests in books, squash, hiking, travel and Jazz. He is fluent in Chinese, while speaks limited French and Urdu.
The last three days of the SARANG Festival 2015 included an extensive range of events consisting of an orchestration of folk music performances by a group named Rajasthani Josh, Yoga sessions, Dance, Storytelling and Puppet shows.
Tetseo Sisters of 2016
The Tetseo Sisters are a group of four sisters from Nagaland, a state in northeastern India. They have been singing on stage since they were young and are committed to upholding the state's vocal folk music legacy and art. The Tetseo Sisters Mütsevelü (Mercy), Azine (Azi), Kuvelü (Kuku) and Alüne (Lulu) grew up in Kohima, the capital of Nagaland, and belong to the Chakhesang Naga, one of the major Naga ethnic groups. They sing in Chokri, the dialect of the region around Phek District.
Folk fusion is said to have begun in the state thanks to the Tetseo Sisters, seasoned folk musicians from Kohima. The sisters frequently receive invitations to exhibit their artwork in conjunction with their official promotions as Nagaland's cultural ambassadors or representatives both domestically and internationally.
Tetseo sisters have performed in several countries such as Thailand, Myanmar, Yunnan and Korea, on different occasions. The four sisters from Kohima, India had presented a graceful performance on the song O Rhosi at the SARANG Festival, jointly organized by the ICCR and Embassy of India in South Korea, in September 2016, the second episode of this celebration, in Gwangju at the Asian Culture Centre Auditorium.
Third Episode in 2017
From October 20 through November 18th, Korea hosted the third edition SARANG festival. The 2017 SARANG event also sought to commemorate the 70th anniversary of India's freedom from British dominion, which fell on August 15, the same day that Korea was liberated from Japan. SARANG in 2017, introduced a range of India's culture and diversity through music, dance, film, food and art in Seoul, Busan, Seosan, Miryang and Gimhae.
World-renowned flutist Hariprasad Chaurasia and Grammy Award winner traditional instrumentalist Vishwa Mohan Bhatt had performed at the event and showcased traditional Indian music to the Korean listeners. The event also featured a collaborative performance of Indian contemporary dance by Astad Deboo with the Korean percussion band Noreum Machi ensemble and the Indian percussion group Trayam at the KBS Art Hall on October 21. This essentially included a blend of Indian contemporary dance and Gugak (국악) Korean classical music.
Several performances by the Indian local artists were exhibited to allow the spectators to get a glimpse of the rich cultural diversity of India, which included folk dance forms from different parts of the Indian subcontinent. Along with the Purulia Chhau dance group from East India, other representatives of India's distinctive cultural history were the Rattle and Hum Music Society from Nagaland in Northeastern India who performed at the same venue, KBS Art Hall on Yeouido during October 20-28. Altogether, 11 artists hailing from Nagaland, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram along with 5 officials participated in the festival. The artists included the pop sensation 5FEET, COLORED KEYS, RENBENI ODYUO and ETHNIC FUTURE.
Through culinary festivals, the event also popularized Indian cuisine to the Korean populace. The Indian food festival at Millennium Seoul Hilton from October 18-27 showcased authentic flavors of Indian gastronomy with dishes prepared by chef Sanjay Tyagi. It gave participants and visitors a chance to enjoy Indian street food and traditional delicacies, which helps foster cross-cultural interaction and bonding.
When it comes to Indian culture, it’s hard to forget about Indian cinemas. With an attempt to introduce the socio-economic lifestyles of India to the Korean population, the Indian film festival featured films like “Neerja,” “Pink,” “24,” “Maheshinte Prathikaram” and “Ventilator,” at the Busan Cinematheque from October 27-29 and the Korean Film Archive in Seoul from November 14-18, during the third episode of SARANG Festival. In honour of the friendship between the two nations, India and South Korea, artistic collaborations between Indian and Korean artists were also exhibited in Busan.
India Day at Seoul Grand Park on October 21-22, and an evening of Indian classical music by Hariprasad Chaurasia, Vishwa Mohan Bhatt and traditional drum tabla nawaz performer, Ramkumar Mishra at KBS Art Hall on October 25, marked an important event in the history of SARANG Festival in Korea.
This event also provided a stage to the artists of the two nations to showcase their paintings and art forms. There is no denying that paintings and other forms of art provide insight into a country's culture. The works of various Indian artists, including Alfonso Arul Doss, RM Palaniappan, C. Douglas, Smita Kinkale and Ratnadeep Adivrekar, were showcased at the K and K Membership Gallery in Busan from October 27 through November 2, in consort with Korean artists.
Fourth Episode in 2018
The Indian Embassy in Korea had held its fourth annual cultural festival, SARANG, from September 6 to 16 spanning across six Korean metropolis - Seoul, Busan, Gwangju, Jeonju, Chuncheon and Donghae- in 2018. This fourth edition of SARANG marked the Indian Embassy’s largest event organized under the new Indian Ambassador, Sripriya Ranganathan, who took office on August 8, after Vikram Doraiswami stepped down as the ambassador of India.
The festival, which began as a humble gathering in 2015, had expanded into a vibrant extravaganza by 2018 that introduces Koreans to Indian cuisine, language, art, music, dance, performance, and film.
The 2018 edition of the Festival of India specially featured the classical Carnatic music from Southern India in conjugation with two classical dance forms-Kathak and Odissi. While speaking about the festival Ranganathan had stated that it was a part of the embassy's ongoing endeavour to introduce different aspects of India and Indian cultural history to the people of Korea so that the event would be truly representative of the country's cultural diversity. The embassy also added also added, "While only few people know that there are several cultural similarities between our two countries, be it art forms, language, music and even cultural aspects, we use Sarang as a platform to introduce those elements to Korean friends. And that's exactly the reasons why we have chosen SARANG as the name of our festival. It means love in Korean and colorful, diversity and peace or love in Indian languages."
As part of the festival, Kathak and Odissi performances were presented in Seoul at Ewha Womans University's Samsung Hall on Sept. 6, the Indian Culture Centre on Sept. 7 and the National Museum of Korea on Sept. 8. According to the embassy, the Indian Cultural Centre offers classes for both dance forms and they have been "quite popular" among Koreans. The Indian classical dance style known as Kathak, one of eight, uses hand and foot motions as well as face emotions to convey stories.
Odissi, one of the other dance forms, is performed predominantly by women who illustrate ancient mythologies, religious stories and spiritual ideas through body movements, facial expressions, gestures and sign language. Keum Bena, a Korean national who had been practising Odissi in India for the more than ten years, was a member of the Odissi ensemble during the SARANG festival.
Just like every other culture, Indian culture also has its own traditional music forms, especially the Carnatic forms. One of the two primary subgenres of Indian classical music that emerged from prehistoric Hindu practices is Carnatic while the other is a subgenre Hindustani. Throughout the festival, the Carnatic music performance took place three times: on September 12 in Seoul, September 12 in Gwangju, and September 15 in Busan.
The film festival was co-hosted at the Korea Film Archives by Embassy of India in Seoul, Indian Cultural Center Seoul-Busan and Korean Film Archive. The Indian Film Festival, a segment of fourth episode of SARANG, commenced at the Korean Film Archives on September 11. The festival was scheduled to screen "Mark Kom," "Newton," "The Ghazi Attack," "To Let" (Tamil), "Sinjar" (Malayalam), and "Ship Of Theseus," among all the films created in India. The last screening took place on September 16.
The 11-day SARANG festival, 2018 was co-supported by the Indian Council for Cultural Relations, the Indian Cultural Centre and the Seoul Metropolitan Government. It has been held every year in Seoul and Busan since 2015, while rotating to different major cities in Korea.
Fifth Episode in 2019
The much-anticipated curtain raiser ceremony at the renowned 118F Seoul Sky Observation Deck on October 1 marked the start of the fifth edition of the Annual Indian Cultural Festival - Sarang, organized by the Embassy of India. The event was inaugurated with welcome remarks by Mr. Dong Ki Pak, CEO of Seoul Sky, which was followed by warm welcoming words by Ambassador of India, Ms. Sripriya Ranganathan.
The renowned classical dancer Shri. Kapil Sharma and the Carnatic Music team performed the Indian traditional dance, Bharatnatyam, as part of SARANG 2019, organized by Indian Embassy and supported by India’s Ministry of Tourism. Three consecutive Bharatnatyam performances were held at the Indian Cultural Centre in central Seoul, at the Busan Nurimaru APEC House and at the National Gimhae Museum.
Additional performances followed in Daegu, Gwangju, Buyeo County, South Chungcheong, and Nami Island in Gyeonggi. Visitors to Seoul Sky, students from HUFS, and members of the Korean media, including journalists from well-known newspapers in South Korea, all witnessed the curtain raiser ceremony.
This was followed by the Inauguration ceremony for SARANG at Yonsei University on 2nd October 2019. The fifth edition of this festival is especially significant because the date of the Inauguration coincided with Mahatma Gandhi's birthday, and Sarang 2019's theme was centered on Gandhi's 150th birthday.
Continuing the trend of 2018, Carnatic music performances were held again in 2019 at the Yongsan Art Hall’s Grand Theater Mir in central Seoul on October 8; at Incheon Tri-Bowl cultural center on October 9; at the Gwangju Cultural Foundation on October 10; and at the Busan Nurimaru APEC Houseon on October 11. A vocalist together with several musicians who accompany the vocalist with string and percussion instruments make up a Carnatic music ensemble, which is typically performed in small settings.
The festival also encompassed an Indian-Korean art exhibition at the K&K Gallery in Busan, featuring works by five Korean and five Indian artists each. The exhibition lasted till October 10. The Korean artists included Son Yeongson, Choi Seongwon, Kim Yeong-gu, Lee Gwangsu, and Lee Yeongsu, while the Indian counterpart was represented by Alphonso Arul Dass, Rm. Palaniappan, Pravin Kannanur Kishor Sudhakar Suryavanshi and Apurba Nandi.
The Indian Food Festival in conjunction with the Sarang Festival 2019 had offered traditional and signature dishes from the Indian state of Rajasthan prepared by two chefs invited from India for the occasion, at the Millennium Hilton Seoul in central Seoul from November 14 to 22.
Just like every other edition of SARANG, the festival in 2019 also incorporated a film festival that began from October 16, with the inaugural screening at the Korean Film Archive in Mapo District, western Seoul. Award winning Indian films were screened in four different Indian languages with Korean subtitles at the archive center, and additionally at the Busan Cinema Center and at the Asia Culture Center in Gwangju, without charging any price.
Sixth Episode in 2020
The Embassy of India in South Korea continued its efforts to foster initiatives which alloy the rich cultures of India and Korea even during the pandemic. The Covid-19 lockdown did not douse this spirit, and the embassy came back with the sixth edition of SARANG in 2020.
The three-day fest was held on the weekend of 16th, 17th and 18th of October at the picturesque Nami Island in South Korea. Owing to the restrictions that had been imposed by the lockdown, the organizing committee also opted for live broadcasting of the events during the course of festivities, on Facebook and YouTube.
The event was inaugurated in pure Bollywood fashion with a first of its kind movie-based talk show. The event was hosted by Lucky- the ”most famous Indian in Korea” in conversation with Imtiaz Ali-one of India’s revered film directors-on October 16. Lucky has earned his title through his broadcasting presence in the Korean media industry and Bollywood film reviews in Korean.
Like previous years, the festival featured Yoga sessions in the mornings by Ms. Maitri Shah and a showcase of splendid Bollywood, Odissi and Kathak (classical Indian dance forms) performances. Korean natives, Ms. Keum Beena performed Odissi while Ms. Oh Sukhee gave a graceful Kathak performance at the event.
For the first time in the history of SARANG festival, an interaction session was held with Mr. Prakash Jha, an Indian film maker and actor. Also a video conference session, “KASTURBA KATHA,” with Shobhna Radhakrishnan, was organized on the occasion of Mahatma Gandhi’s Birthday. Virtual Classical Dance and Music Concert by Namrata Mehta also captured the audience’s attention.
Artists from Korea also presented several performances that showcased their traditional music, dance forms and culture. Few notable ones include the Gayageum performance by the City Gayageum Orchestra and a dance-play performance called “Queen’s Dream”(왕후의 꿈).
Seventh Episode in 2021
The Indian Embassy launched the seventh edition of the Festival of India-SARANG, on September 25-26, 2021 at the picturesque location of the Nami Island in harmony with the nature.
Due to the difficulties brought on by the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic and the limits placed on social gatherings, The Festival of India - SARANG 2021 was arranged in a hybrid manner. While the artists performed physically at the Island, the performances were also live-streamed for wider viewership in Republic of Korea.
India's classical dance style, Kathak, as well as contemporary Bollywood dance, instrumental fusion music by Gayageum, Biba, and Sitar, a performance by the Korean band Harmonise on a Hindi song, and yoga sessions for reviving the body, mind, and spirit were among the many performances exhibited at the event.
On this occasion, the Indian Art Museum in Yeongwol (영월) also staged an exhibition of Indian folk art, while Hankuk University of Foreign Studies' Institute of Indian Studies organised a photo exhibition of India. The famed Indian chai, samosas, and gulab jamun were offered to the guests on the island, where they also had a taste of Indian cuisine. Coincidentally, the seventh edition of SARANG festival fell on the same date as the 74th anniversary of India’s Independence or Azaadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav (Festival of India’s Independence) celebrations. This was commemorated by holding a variety of events, such as international conferences, lectures, and workshops; cultural events, such as visual art exhibitions, film screenings, yoga workshops, and demonstrations; Buddhist gatherings and events; and painting and art contests, among others. To commemorate this momentous occasion, the Cultural Centre and the Indian Embassy in Seoul sponsored a number of activities in collaboration with regional organizations, with a specific emphasis on issues pertinent to the relations between India and the Republic of Korea.
Eighth Episode in 2022
South Korean spectators were treated to mesmerizing performances by Indian and Korean singers, dancers, and artists at the 8th edition of the festival, which was held from 30 September to 14 October 2022 at various venues across the country, after a two-year COVID lockdown hiatus.
The festival-SARANG, which drew an impressive and fervent throng of fans of India, kicked off on September 30 with a curtain raiser ceremony at the historic Hwaeom-sa (화엄사) Temple, which was the venue for the Indian Classical Music and Odissi Dance performance. The cultural performances took place in other cities as well, including Gimhae (Oct. 1), Busan (Oct. 2), Seoul (Oct. 4-5), Cheongju (Oct. 6), Yeongdong (영동군) (Oct. 7), Nami Island (Oct. 8-9) and Incheon (Oct. 13-14).
The Republic of Korea's cultural events in SARANG 2022 year included an Odissi classical dance performance by a group under the direction of Ms. Kunjalata Mishra, a skilled dancer who has won the renowned Braj Ratna and Braj Gaurav Samman awards. Renowned soprano Ms. Sunanda Sharma of the Benaras Gharana directed the musical performance, and she was backed by eminent musicians on traditional Indian musical instruments such the tabla, harmonium, sarangi, and tanpura. The cultural ensemble in Seoul (Oct. 4) also featured a medley of Indo-Korean fusion music by Aram Lee on Daegeum (Flute) and percussionist Min Wang Hwang on Janggu (Traditional Korean Drum), performing with the Hindustani Classical music group led by vocalist Sunanda Sharma and her supporting artists. Korean dancer Ms. Beena Keum, who studied under the famous Odissi Master Guru Gangadhar Pradhan, and Indian Kathak dancer Ms. Sonali Roy, a student of the renowned Padma Vibhushan Pandit Birju Maharaj, also performed a fusion of Odissi and Kathak.
In addition to the cultural performances, Nami Island also hosted a special photo exhibition honoring India's humanitarian assistance during the Korean War, which included the deployment of an Army Medical Unit and the Custodian Force of India. This exhibition recognized India's unique contributions to the restoration of peace on the Korean Peninsula.
All activities were free to attend and were broadcasted live on the social media accounts of the Indian Culture Centre. The local community in Republic of Korea expressed great appreciation for the cultural performances and Indian booths showcasing the diversity of Indian cultural heritage.
In addition to the cultural performances, SARANG Festival brought some of the award winning and critically acclaimed popular movies under the Film Festival that was hosted in November and December. The 10th Busan Indian Film Festival took place from November 18–20, 2022. At the Busan Cinema Centre, the festival screened a number of award-winning, highly acclaimed regional and Hindi films.
The festival was organised by the Hannarae Foundation for Culture, Hongbeop Temple, Busan, the Busan Cinema Centre, the India Centre at Busan University of Foreign Studies, and the Swami Vivekananda Cultural Centre, Indian Embassy in Seoul. On November 18, the opening ceremony officially kicked off the event. The inaugural screening was of the Hindi film Padmavat. Over the course of three days, six movies were shown in Busan. They were Shot Boot-3 (Tamil), Anandi Gopal (Marathi), Asuran (Tamil), Natyam (Telugu), House Owner (Tamil), and Padmavat (Hindi). This was followed by a Food Festival in January 2023.
The SARANG festival continues to entertain and serve the people who have similar interests and have love for Indian culture while deepening the bond between the two nations. It is worth mentioning that the love Korean pop bands, Korean dramas, movies and food is currently on rise, in India, the reason being the influence of the Hallyu wave in the recent years. The KCCI regularly organizes (Korean Cultural Center India) different cultural and educational events in India to spread awareness about the Korean culture among the Indian populace.
RANG DE KOREA in India
India hosted the biggest Korean Culture festival, RANG DE KOREA, in 2022, following the Covid pandemic that lasted for about two and half years. KCCI organized this free event as a gift to India and its people on a special occasion. To mark the 10th anniversary of the establishment of the Korean Cultural Centre in India, the Korean Culture Festival was organised on October 15 and 16 in the largest shopping mall area in New Delhi.
It featured Korea's representative performance contents, various cultural experiences, events, and promotional booths of representative Korean brands. Korean pop music has recently attracted much attention of the youth of India.
Among the groups that captivated the Indian audience in the festival, comprises of Bugaboo (Rookie girl group), Kingdom (4th gen k-pop band), K-tigers and ID, the Korean Fusion band. A series of traditional performances were also presented during the event which included Samullori (사물놀이), Haegum and Korean Wedding Ceremony followed by a Hanbok Fashion Show. Samullori is performed with four traditional Korean musical instruments. They are Kkwaenggwari (꽹과리), a small gong; Jing (징), a larger gong; Janggu (장구), an hourglass-shaped drum; and Buk (북), a barrel drum similar to the bass drum. The Haegum (해금) is a traditional Korean string instrument, resembling a vertical fiddle with two strings; derived from the ancient Chinese xiqin. While Hanbok is the traditional Korean attire.
The participants also got a chance to experience Korean Naming and Calligraphy games, tourism, Hallyu Flea Market, Hanbok dress up, Photo booths and many more. KCCI (Korean Cultural Center India) also organized a 10 years completion special exhibition and Korean Brand promotion Booths.
Both countries, India and South Korea, are making several efforts to build a relationship that endures, not only at the diplomatic level but also a sense of closeness among the populations of the two nations. Around 11000 Indian nationals, including 120 PIOs, currently reside in South Korea. The scholarships provided by the Korean government and other Korean organizations play a big role in attracting students for higher studies. While several Koreans also choose to live in India as it is a great destination to study. In recent times, more and more people, including Koreans, are getting to know about India and carrying interest in its colorful diverse culture.
Topic Myohyeollye in Jongmyo
Country India WB Team 4
Name Palak Doshi
Hello, I'm Palak Doshi from India WB Team 4 and I've written an article on the topic Myohyeollye in Jongmyo. This article was written with through research. Please find the link to my article and reference below.
Wikipedia Article Link - https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Draft:Myohyeollye_in_Jongmyo
The spirit tablets of the former kings and queens of the Joseon Dynasty are kept in Jongmyo, a shrine. The shrine, which the king frequented to take part in ancestral ceremonies and express his wishes for the welfare of the populace and the state, is a symbol of the legitimacy of the royal family. The Confucian royal ancestor shrines are all distinctive in their architectural designs, but Jongmyo is the oldest and most genuine of them all. It was initially constructed in the late 14th century but was destroyed during the 16th-century Japanese invasion. It was reconstructed in the early 17th century, and a few additions were added to the buildings after that. The shrine was built at the same time as Gyeongbokgung Palace, under the orders of King Taejo, the first king of the Joseon dynasty. The shrine is the site of the royal memorial service, called Jongmyo Jaeryeak, national event that has been passed down since the Three Kingdoms period.
The queen or the crown princess travels to Jongmyo for the national ceremony known as Myohyeollye following the royal wedding to commune with the royal spirits. Royal women only take part in one national event in Jongmyo which is Myohyeollye.
In Joseonwangjosillok, there is information about Myohyeollye (Source: The 30th Book of King Sukjong's Annal; October 9, 22nd year of King Sukjong).
“The fact that ladies travel to Jongmyo to do the ceremony is beyond abhorrent. Women cannot be allowed to enter such a sombre, holy place. The ritual simply needs to have this fixed. King Sukjong, however, screamed at his guards. “It is fair for us to execute Myohyeollye in imitation of the Chinese system. Who else could carry out a ceremony when the queen and the crown princess enter, in addition? Being bound to a single object but not practising Myohyeollye is like to giving up food permanently out of concern for choking. Just keep going.”
The crown prince and the king get ready
Gukgungsabae is the traditional way for the King, the Crown Prince, and other civil and military leaders to honour the previous monarchs. Gukgung is the term for making a deep, respectful bow in front of the spirits; sabae is the term for making four bows. Here, bowing doesn’t mean making a single bow before standing. They sit down and make a single low bow to the ground before bowing a further four times while lowering their heads.
The king and the crown prince examine Sinju’s room.
The room of sinju, which has tablets representing previous monarchs, is examined by the king and the crown prince. A person who has been given a command by the monarch or the king himself must perform the rite of Bongsim to inspect Jongmyo. In addition to merely going to Jongmyo for Bongsim, the practise was carried out prior to important occasions like Myohyeollye.
The king and crown prince arrive at socha
The king and the crown prince enter the socha (a royal tent) after the civil and military authorities have left Jongmyo. The retainers should leave Jongmyo before the royal women arrive because they aren’t allowed to visit the queen and the crown princess during those times.
The queen and crown princess "do almyo" (pay respects).
Official reverence is shown to the former monarchs by the queen and the crown princess. They do gukgungsabae but refrain from going into the sinju chamber. This almyo, which is the only one of Joseon's national rites at Jongmyo where royal women participate, takes up a tiny but substantial portion of the Myohyeollye Procedures.
The queen and crown princess depart.
The queen and the crown princess pay their respects and depart from Jongmyo through the east gate. Along with them, all the female officials leave the location. The queen and the crown princess are depicted in this copy thanking the tourists rather than leaving.
Topic: South Korean Stationery Products
Team: West Bengal Team 1
Team Members: Bijuri Dey, Himani Saha, Pallabi Das, Meghobarna Kundu
South Korean Stationery Products
There are certain things that are significant aspects of modern South Korea and one of those is the stationery products. Stationery products are called ‘문구류’ or ‘Mun-gu-ryu’ in Korean language (“Stationery and Stationery Store Vocabulary”, n.d.). In addition to the trademark cafes, South Korea is also popular for its impeccable range of stationery products. From adorable journals, sticky notes of different sizes, gel pens to sustainable notebooks-this country is a paradise for all the stationery lovers. Unlike many other countries, Korean stationery products include a huge diversity of character, high quality designs in different price range.
Significant ‘Cute’ Characteristic Aspect of Stationery Products:
South Korean stationery products might be different in nature but all the products share one common element, i.e. ‘cuteness’. It is a prerequisite for all the stationery products (Cadena, 2020). This can be perceived as an extension of the ‘Aegyo’ (‘애교’) culture of displaying affection in cute ways (Jung, 2010). Quite often the word is translated as ‘cuteness’ in English language and bears striking similarity with the Japanese concept of ‘Kawai’ or ‘かわいい’and the Chinese concept of ‘Sajiao’ or ‘撒娇’ (Puzar, Hong, 2018).
Most Popular South Korean Stationery Stores (Artbox and Daiso):
Stationery shops are called ‘Mungujeom’ or ‘문구점’ in Korean. There are plenty of stationery brands available but the most popular ones are called Artbox and Daiso (Yeong, 2019). Artbox (아트박스) has more than 120 branches in South Korea and more than 40 branches overseas. Established in the year of 1984, the brand is known for offering a wide range of characters and stationery items that come in unique, cute designs.
Some of the most popular Artbox products are a big rabbit doll, cute pens, pink otto notebook, portable charger, seal shaped humidifier, cute bow-ties.
Originally Daiso (다이소) is a Japanese franchise which is popular for selling stationery, household as well as cleaning products (Yeong, 2019). It has branches in 25 countries and there are certain products which can be found only in Korean Daiso shops.
Daiso Store in South Korea
Some of its most popular items are cute electric fans, hand fans, notebooks, etc.
Popular Stationery Stores in South Korea:
Hongdae (홍대) is one of the most attractive shopping destinations of South Korea. The area is known for promoting local art and
Indie music culture through cafes, clubs and entertainment. Hongdae also includes one of the most famous Korean stationery brands, called Object. There are three floors at the Hongdae branch. Each floor has something unique to offer to its visitors. From stationery items, candles, tote bags, to books and original apparel- Hongdae offers a peak into modern, minimalist Korean aesthetic.
Butter is another popular stationery store at Hongdae Street. The entire store is a visual
representation of cute, colourful aesthetics of the country (Yeong, 2019). From daily necessities, unique stationeries, household items to plushies and dolls- Butter has something to offer to all of its visitors.
Some other quite popular Korean stationery brands are Appree, Colorverse, Dong-A, Iconic, Livework, etc (Connie, 2023). Due to the increasing demand, many of these stores have started shipping products worldwide.
Target Customers and Increasing Popularity:
Initially, the target audience of these stores was set to be mostly the women of the age group between 20 years and 30 years. Gradually, due to the rising popularity, more people beyond that designated age group and from different gender, are consuming these products (Cadena, 2020). One of the major reasons behind this immense success is definitely the creative artwork and design of everyday products. Through these stationery stores, the ordinariness of these daily products are being transformed into something unique, beautiful, artistic and aesthetic (“Stationery shops note culture for cute things”, 2013).
1. Yeong (2019): “Stationery Stores in Hongdae” on cleartrip.com. Retrieved on 18th March, 2023.
2. Connie (2023): “Korean Stationery Brands You Need to Know” on jetpens.com. Retreived on 19th March, 2023.
3. Cadena, Rocio (2020): “Stationery and Cuteness Culture in South Korea” on stickyricesisters.com. Retrieved on 17th March, 2023.
4. “Stationery Shops Note Culture for Cute Things” on KoreaJoongAngDaily.com. Retrieved on 20th March, 2023
5. “Stationery and Stationery Store Vocabulary in Korean” on LearnKorean.com. Retrieved on 19th March, 2023.
6. Puzar, Aljosa; Hong, Yewon (2018). "Korean Cuties: Understanding Performed Winsomeness (Aegyo) in South Korea".
7. Jung, Sun (2010): Korean Masculinities and Transcultural Consumption: Yonsama, Rain, Oldboy, K-Pop Idols. Hong Kong University Press, p 165
8. Retrieved on 20th March, 2023. https://www.poom.co.kr/main/initMain.action
9. Retrieved on 19th March, 2023. https://www.daisomall.co.kr/low_deal/lowdeal_main.php
10. Retrieved on 18th March, 2023. https://en.insideobject.com
11.Retrieved on 19th March, 2023.
11. Retrieved on 17th March, 2023. https://www.instagram.com/butter_insta/?hl=en
Topic : Haman Nakhwa Nori (함안낙화놀이)
Team Members : Srotoswini, Soumi, Tithi (WB4)
Introduction : For our first wikipedia topic of this semester we wrote about Haman Nakhwa Nori (함안낙화놀이), which is a unique folk festival of Haman which is held annually in the Mujinjeong area on Buddha's Birthday for the well-being of the county residents.
Wikipedia Link : Haman Nakhwa Nori
Haman Nakhwa Nori (함안낙화놀이) is a unique folk festival of Haman which is held annually in the Mujinjeong area on Buddha's Birthday for the well-being of the county residents. 
Nakhwa Nori is a folk ritual in which thousands of threads produced by the village itself made of hanji or korean paper by twisting them with charcoal powder are hung on a rope and lit in the evening which creates a spectacular view of the charcoal powder burning and blowing in the wind like fireworks. 
The origin of Haman Nakhwa Nori is not known accurately yet, but it is estimated to be originated from the middle of Joseon Dynasty in the mid 17th century. Haman Nakhwa Nori is also called Isujeong Nakhwa Nori or Mujeong Nakhwa Nori, and it is said that it was first founded by Jeong-gu, a local governor during the Joseon Dynasty.
The first record of Haman Nakhwa Nori appears in Oh Hoeng-muk's "Haman Chongswaerok". When Oh was appointed as the governor of Haman-gun, he saw Nakhwa Nori played in the files of April 1890 and 1892 and recorded it in the form of a diary. According to this record, Nakhwa Nori was held throughout Haman-eupseong Fortress at that time and was large enough to watch from the mountain. 
Haman Nakhwa Nori is a traditional fireworks display in Haman that began during the Joseon Dynasty when the county mayor of Haman, Jeong-gu prayed for the well-being of the county residents. In addition, Oh Hoeng-muk, who served as Haman-gun County Governor during the reign of King Gojong of the Joseon Dynasty, he recorded Nakhwanori in Haman Chongswaerok, which he wrote in the form of a diary, indicating that it is historically old. 
During the Japanese colonial period, it was suspended in accordance with the national regular extermination policy, but was restored in 1985 and holds an annual event to pray for the well-being of Haman-gun residents. 
Making of Nakhwa Nori:
Nakhwabong, which is used for Nakhwa Nori, is made of three kinds of domestic natural ingredients such as charcoal powder, hanji or korean paper, and mineral wool. The process of making oak charcoal, an important ingredient of Nakhwa Nori, is said to be difficult enough to take almost three months.
In the process of making Nakhwabong, they spread a spoon of charcoal powder evenly on Korean paper or hanji then put Gwangmokcheon or cotton cloth which acts as a wick, put two spoons of charcoal powder on top of it again, spread it evenly, fold Korean paper, roll it, fix it, and twist two Nakhwabong sticks made in the same way to make Nakhwabong. 
The completed Nakhwabong is finished with attaching a wish paper with a wish written on it in a shape that looks like a twisted bread stick or a head.
Then they take the completed Nakhwabong and move to Isujeong (Chungnodam), where Haman Nakhwa ritual takes place. A pillar is erected on the Isujeong stone Bridge, a hanging wire rope is hung with the Nakhwa-bong attached to it, and the ritual takes place while waiting for the dark evening.
Making of Haman Nakhwa Nori takes time and has a slow waiting period that cannot be felt at the colourful fireworks that explode during the festival. The beauty as the charcoal powder burns and the flame that falls on the pond that looks like falling flower petals, are fantastic in themselves and are worth all the wait. 
Nakhwa Nori began with the purpose of praying for the well-being of the residents and good harvest since the Joseon Dynasty. , Nakhwa Nori also enjoys the splendour of the ritual itself, but in terms of its function, it has the meaning of “Byeoksajingyeong” that pursues diseases and ashes that threaten the community and calls for a slope.
The red energy of the falling flame brings auspiciousness and comfort, and the embers scattered in the wind create an impression of blessing on those who participated in the ritual. In addition, residents voluntarily participate in the preparation of Nakhwa Nori throughout the entire process, which is also an opportunity to strengthen the friendship of the neighbours. Currently, it is handed down as a unique game as the local tradition and realistic situation are properly harmonized. 
The place where Haman Nakhwa Nori is held is Isujeong Pond in Mujeong Pavilion. In the center of the pond, also called Chungnodam, there is a pavilion called Yeongsongnu, which is connected by three stone bridges, and you can see Haman Nakhwa Nori right there where the dense willow trees harmonize with the pond to create a beautiful scenery.
Mujinjeong Pavilion, facing Songjeongnu Pavilion, is a pavilion built by Mujin Jo Sam, a civil official of the Joseon Dynasty, to foster younger generations and spend the rest of his life, it is called Mujeong Pavilion after his pen name.
Haman Nakhwa Nori Training Center is located right next to Mujeong Pavilion. Haman Nakhwa Nori has become well known through KBS's 2 Days and 1 Night. 
1. Topic: Ministry of Culture, Sports, and Tourism- Jeju Fire Festival (Translated in Hindi)
2. Writer: Inaas Fatima Khan (India West Bengal Team 2)
जेजू फायर फेस्टिवल (제주들불축제)
कोरियाई कैलेंडर में चंद्र नव वर्ष के बाद पहली पूर्णिमा के दौरान, प्रत्येक वर्ष में तीन दिनों के लिए, जेजू द्वीप (제주도) में एक अग्नि महोत्सव आयोजित किया जाता है। फायर फेस्टिवल को Jeongwol Daeboreum फायर फेस्टिवल (제주들불축제) कहा जाता है, जिसे कोरिया में एक बहुत ही अनोखी छुट्टी के रूप में मनाया जाता है। (1)
Jeongwol Daeboreum अच्छे स्वास्थ्य और वर्ष के लिए प्रचुर मात्रा में फसल के लिए प्रार्थना करने का एक समारोह है। एक प्रत्याशित घटना जिसमें न केवल जेजू के निवासियों बल्कि पूरे कोरिया और अंतर्राष्ट्रीय लोगों द्वारा भी भाग लिया जाता है।
जेजू फायर फेस्टिवल को एक ऐसा त्योहार कहा जाता है, जिसमें पारंपरिक संस्कृति और आधुनिक विकसित संस्कृति को आपस में जोड़ा जाता है, ताकि कीटों और पुरानी घास को हटाकर पर्यावरण में संवेदनशीलता की खातिर एक सामंजस्य स्थापित किया जा सके। इस पारंपरिक त्योहार में त्योहार के स्रोत के रूप में दिलचस्प पशु संस्कृति है, जिसे Bangae (방애) कहा जाता है। इस उत्सव के माध्यम से विदेशियों को भी Bangae की संस्कृति से परिचित कराया गया है।
Bangae प्रत्येक गांव के देर से सर्दियों और शुरुआती वसंत के बीच खेतों में आग लगाने की परंपरा है। यह मवेशियों और घोड़ों की चराई के लिए पहाड़ों के बीच घास के मैदान में पुरानी घास और कीटों से छुटकारा पाने के लिए है। (2)
यह त्यौहार १९९७ में ‘Jeongwol Daeboreum फायर फेस्टिवल' के रूप में शुरू हुआ। यह २०१३ में १६ वीं से अपने वर्तमान नाम (제주들불축제) में बदल गया। यह हर साल सप्ताहांत पर सैब्योल ओरियम (새별오름) में आयोजित किया जाता है। (3)
Saebyeol Oreum (새별오름) मुख्य उत्सव स्थल:
जेजू फायर फेस्टिवल १९९७ से Naepeup-ri, Aewol-up, Jeju-si, Deokcheon-ri, Gujwa-eup के बीच हो रहा है। २००० से, Saebyeol Oreum (새별오름) को मुख्य उत्सव स्थल के रूप में चुना गया है। Saebyeol Oreum पश्चिमी भाग में आबादी वाले पहाड़ी ज्वालामुखीय शंकुओं के बीच पश्चिम में सबसे प्रसिद्ध ज्वालामुखी शंकु है, जिसमें कई ज्वालामुखी शंकु हैं जैसे कि Barimeoreum, Nuunoreum, Dangoreum, और Geumoreum। (3) Saebyeol Oreum को इस नाम से पुकारा जाता है क्योंकि कोरियाई लोककथाओं के अनुसार नाम का अर्थ है 'शाम के आकाश में सुबह के तारे की तरह चमकता है'। Saebyeol Oreum का विस्तारित दृश्य जेजू पर्वतीय क्षेत्रों के बीच में एकमात्र अद्वितीय क्षेत्र के रूप में उभर कर सामने आता है। Saebyeol Oreum, ५१९.३m की ऊंचाई, ११९m की ऊंचाई, २७१३m की परिधि और ५२२,२१६m२ के क्षेत्र के साथ, एक घोड़े की नाल के आकार का गड्ढा जैसा है और जेजू द्वीप पर ३६० अयस्कों (오름) के बीच मध्यम स्तर है। (4)
फायर फेस्टिवल में कार्यक्रम:
फायर फेस्टिवल का मुख्य कार्यक्रम एक मशाल रिले के साथ शुरू होता है, जो द्वीप की लंबाई में चलता है। रिले तब समाप्त होता है जब आयोजकों ने एक विशाल, ८२-एकड़ के अयस्क (오름) के एक विशाल क्षेत्र में आग लगा दी, जो एक परजीवी ज्वालामुखी है।
हर साल जेजू फायर फेस्टिवल के आयोजक इस त्योहार को मजेदार और आकर्षक बनाने के लिए विभिन्न आयोजनों की योजना बनाते हैं। मुख्य आकर्षण में फॉर्च्यून पिग और डक प्रतियोगिता शामिल है, जिसमें प्रतिभागी सूअरों और बत्तखों का पीछा करते हुए फिनिश लाइन की ओर जाते हैं; पर्यटकों को पारंपरिक कोरियाई जंप रोपिंग भी देखने को मिलता है; एक तीतर को इच्छा पत्र संलग्न करना और उसे मुक्त करना; और ड्युमडोल प्रतियोगिता, जिसमें प्रतियोगी १३० किलोग्राम के गोलाकार पत्थर को जहाँ तक हो सके ले जाते हैं। बहुत पहले जेजू द्वीप पर, ड्यूमडोल प्रतियोगिता वयस्कता को चिह्नित करने के लिए एक पारंपरिक समारोह था। प्रतियोगिता आगंतुकों, द्वीप निवासियों और शहर के प्रतिनिधियों के लिए खुली है। इस प्रतियोगिता के लिए अलग-अलग भार वर्ग हैं। (5)
इस मेले के मुख्य आकर्षण:
चंद्र गृह को जलाना:
इस त्योहार का मुख्य आकर्षण daljip का जलना है (달집태우기) इस त्योहार के दौरान, प्रतिभागियों ने daljip (कोर। 달집, या मून हाउस) का निर्माण किया, एक बड़ी अलाव संरचना, एक देवदार के पेड़ और अन्य लॉग की ताजी शाखाओं के साथ, और इसे सेट किया पूर्णिमा के उदय के साथ आग पर, भाग्य के लिए प्रार्थना और बुराई से बचाव। (6) आग से संबंधित इन समारोहों के अलावा, आगंतुकों को कई बाहरी गतिविधियों की पेशकश की जाती है, जिससे उन्हें जेजू द्वीप के सुंदर प्राकृतिक परिवेश का आनंद लेने में मदद मिलती है, जैसे कि घुड़सवारी, ट्रेकिंग और पतंग उड़ाना। अतिरिक्त आकर्षण भी हैं जैसे 'स्पिनिंग-कैन इवेंट' (बच्चे स्पिन धधकते डिब्बे), लेजर शो और शाम के आसमान में आतिशबाजी दिखाते हैं। (7)
Jwibulnori (कोरियाई: 쥐불놀이) एक कोरियाई खेल है जिसमें प्रतिभागी जलती हुई वस्तुओं से भरे डिब्बे को घुमाकर प्रकाश की धारियाँ बनाते हैं। खेल चंद्र कैलेंडर में वर्ष की पहली पूर्णिमा के दौरान खेला जाता है, जो कोरिया में राष्ट्रीय अवकाश है। यह उस समय के दौरान खेला जाता है जब हानिकारक कीड़ों और चूहों को उनके निवास स्थान को जलाकर नष्ट करने के लिए खेतों में आग लगा दी जाती है। खेल का एक अन्य उद्देश्य अच्छे स्वास्थ्य की कामना करना है। (8)
इस पर्व के लिए विशेष भोजन:
Daeboreum के दौरान, सबसे प्रसिद्ध भोजन परंपरा Bureom (부럼) खा रही है। Jeongwol Daeboreum की सुबह, Bureom आमतौर पर खाया जाता है। यह अखरोट, मूँगफली, चेस्टनट, और गिंग्को नट्स सहित मेवों का मिश्रण है। नट को उनके गोले के साथ बरकरार रखा जाता है, क्योंकि कोरियाई अपने दांतों से गोले को फोड़ते हैं। कहा जाता है कि यह अनुष्ठान स्वस्थ दांतों को बढ़ावा देता है और त्वचा के फोड़ों को रोकता है, साथ ही सौभाग्य भी लाता है। हालांकि परंपरागत रूप से कोरियाई अपनी उम्र के बराबर कई नट्स को फोड़ने के लिए होते हैं (इसलिए एक २५ वर्षीय व्यक्ति को २५ नट्स को क्रैक करने की आवश्यकता होगी), अब लोग सामान्य रूप से केवल दो या तीन नट्स ही तोड़ते हैं। (9)
Jeongwol Daeboreum अवसर पर पारंपरिक नाश्ता भोजन अनुभवी सब्जियां (जैसे बैंगन, मशरूम, और स्क्वैश) और Ogokbap (오곡밥) है, जो 'पांच अनाज चावल' का अनुवाद करता है। यह पांच प्रकार के अनाज हैं, जिन्हें सुखाकर और सूखे जड़ी बूटियों के साथ मिलाकर बनाया जाता है। कोरियाई अक्सर इसे जल्दी पकाते हैं, ताकि वे अपने व्यंजन दोस्तों और पड़ोसियों के साथ साझा कर सकें, क्योंकि ऐसा माना जाता है कि यह आने वाले वर्ष में समृद्धि लाएगा। (10)
इस समारोह का मुख्य पेय Gwibalgisul है, जिसका अर्थ है 'कानों को तेज करने वाली शराब'। Gwibalgisul भी imyeongju और ichongju सहित चीन-कोरियाई नामों के तहत जाना जाता है। यह ठंडी चावल की शराब का एक शॉट है, और यह माना जाता है कि इसे पीने से आपकी सुनवाई तेज हो जाती है और पूरे साल आपके कानों में अच्छी खबर आती है। हालाँकि युवा पीढ़ी शॉट नहीं पीती है, माता-पिता अक्सर उन्हें रिवाज में शामिल करने के लिए उनके होठों पर शराब की एक बूंद डालते हैं। (11)
२०२२ जेजू फायर फेस्टिवल:
कोविड-१९ के बाद २४वां जेजू फायर फेस्टिवल १८ मार्च २०२२ से २० मार्च २०२२ के बीच आयोजित किया जाना था। हालांकि, इस साल त्योहार को उस स्थिति पर शोक मनाने के लिए रद्द कर दिया गया है जिसमें Uljin जंगल की आग राष्ट्रीय आपदा में फैल गई है और राष्ट्रीय जंगल की आग आपदा के दर्द को साझा करें। (12)
पुरस्कार और उत्कृष्टता:
जेजू फायर फेस्टिवल को संस्कृति, खेल और पर्यटन मंत्रालय द्वारा चुना गया था, और २००६ से २०१५ तक लगातार आठ वर्षों तक एक होनहार त्योहार के खिताब से सम्मानित किया गया, २०१५ से २०१८ तक लगातार चार वर्षों तक एक उत्कृष्ट उत्सव, और २०१९ में सबसे अच्छा त्योहार। (13)
पूर्व कोरिया रोग नियंत्रण और रोकथाम केंद्र (KCDC), स्वास्थ्य और कल्याण मंत्रालय के तहत एक संगठन, को एक स्वतंत्र सरकारी एजेंसी बनने के लिए पदोन्नत किया गया और इसका नाम बदलकर कोरिया रोग नियंत्रण और रोकथाम एजेंसी कर दिया गया।
एक संक्रामक रोग नियंत्रण संगठन के रूप में एजेंसी की स्वतंत्रता और विशेषज्ञता को बढ़ाना
नीति पहल में बदलाव सहित पृष्ठभूमि:
परिवर्तन से पहले, KCDC स्वास्थ्य और कल्याण मंत्रालय का एक संबद्ध संगठन था और उसके पास स्वतंत्र संगठनात्मक, कार्मिक और बजटीय प्राधिकरण नहीं था। 12 सितंबर, 2020 से, एक स्वतंत्र सरकारी एजेंसी के रूप में, केडीसीए संक्रामक रोग निवारण पद्धति जैसे नियमों के सीधे प्रभारी हैं और संक्रामक रोगों से संबंधित नीतियों और प्रवर्तन पर व्यावहारिक अधिकार रखते हैं। रोग प्रबंधन और स्वास्थ्य संवर्धन से संबंधित जांच, अनुसंधान और परियोजनाएं भी केसीडीए के अधिकार के तहत की जाती हैं, जबकि पूर्व में, संबंधित प्राधिकरणों को स्वास्थ्य और कल्याण मंत्रालय से प्रत्यायोजित किया गया है। केडीसीए का अनुसंधान कार्य भी बढ़ेगा और इस प्रकार संक्रामक रोग निगरानी से लेकर जांच और विश्लेषण, संकट प्रतिक्रिया और रोकथाम से संबंधित गतिविधियों को कठोर अनुसंधान गतिविधि द्वारा समर्थित किया जाएगा।
14 जुलाई, 1949: स्वास्थ्य मंत्रालय के तहत केंद्रीय स्वास्थ्य केंद्र बनाया गया
1 जनवरी, 1960: इसका नाम बदलकर केंद्रीय स्वास्थ्य संस्थान कर दिया गया
12 अगस्त, 1960: नाम बदलकर राष्ट्रीय स्वास्थ्य संस्थान कर दिया गया
17 दिसंबर, 1963: राष्ट्रीय रासायनिक प्रयोगशालाओं, जड़ी-बूटियों की राष्ट्रीय प्रयोगशाला और सार्वजनिक स्वास्थ्य प्रशिक्षण के राष्ट्रीय संस्थान के साथ विलय
1 फरवरी, 1967: इसका नाम बदलकर राष्ट्रीय जन स्वास्थ्य प्रशिक्षण संस्थान कर दिया गया
नवंबर 1981: नाम बदलकर राष्ट्रीय स्वास्थ्य संस्थान कर दिया गया
23 दिसंबर, 1994: स्वास्थ्य और कल्याण मंत्रालय के तहत पुनर्गठित
18 दिसंबर, 2003: कोरिया रोग नियंत्रण और रोकथाम केंद्र (केसीडीसी) में परिवर्तित
दिसंबर 2010: अपने मुख्यालय को ओसोंग में स्थानांतरित कर दिया
अप्रैल 2012: केसीडीसी के केएनआईएच के तहत राष्ट्रीय केंद्रीय मानव शरीर संसाधन बैंक की स्थापना की गई
12 सितंबर, 2020: अधिक स्वायत्तता और संसाधनों के साथ मंत्रालय के तहत एक विस्तारित कोरिया रोग नियंत्रण और रोकथाम एजेंसी (केडीसीए) में पुनर्गठित
इसका इतिहास दक्षिण कोरिया में प्रमुख संक्रामक रोग के प्रकोप के अनुरूप है। 2003 में SARS के प्रकोप के बाद, तत्कालीन राष्ट्रीय स्वास्थ्य संस्थान को अमेरिकी सीडीसी-जैसे केसीडीसी में पुनर्गठित किया गया था। 2015 में MERS के प्रकोप के बाद, KCDC के प्रमुख को उप-मंत्री स्तर पर पदोन्नत किया गया था।
2020 के आम चुनाव को देखते हुए जहां सभी प्रमुख दलों ने "प्रशासन/एजेंसी और COVID-19 के प्रकोप से सीखे गए सबक को उठाकर KCDC की स्वायत्तता बढ़ाने का वादा किया था, ऐसी अफवाहें हैं कि वहाँ होगा निकट भविष्य में संगठन में परिवर्तन। 10 मई 2020 को कार्यालय में अपने तीसरे वर्ष को चिह्नित करने के लिए अपने विशेष सार्वजनिक संबोधन में, राष्ट्रपति मून जे-इन ने घोषणा की कि वह केसीडीसी की स्थिति को प्रशासन तक बढ़ाने के लिए कानून में संशोधन की मांग करेंगे।
12 सितंबर 2020 को, KCDC ने अधिक स्वायत्तता और संसाधनों के साथ एक कोरिया रोग नियंत्रण और रोकथाम एजेंसी (KDCA) का विस्तार किया - विशेष रूप से इसके कर्मचारियों की संख्या में 42% की वृद्धि हुई और KNIH का संक्रामक रोग अनुसंधान केंद्र KNIH का एक शोध संस्थान बन गया। KCDC के निदेशक, Jeong Eun-kyeong, इसके पहले आयुक्त के रूप में संगठन का नेतृत्व करना जारी रखेंगे।
स्वास्थ्य जोखिम प्रतिक्रिया विभाग
चोट निवारण और नियंत्रण प्रभाग
जलवायु परिवर्तन और स्वास्थ्य संरक्षण विभाग
राष्ट्रीय स्वास्थ्य अनुसंधान संस्थान/कोरिया राष्ट्रीय स्वास्थ्य संस्थान
राष्ट्रीय संक्रामक रोग अनुसंधान संस्थान
रोग नियंत्रण और रोकथाम के लिए क्षेत्रीय केंद्र
राष्ट्रीय संगरोध स्टेशन
इंचियोन एयरपोर्ट संगरोध
Mokpo राष्ट्रीय क्षय रोग अस्पताल
मसान राष्ट्रीय क्षय रोग अस्पताल
केसीडीसी के निदेशक
किम मून-सिक (2003-2004)
ओह डे-ग्यू (2004-2007)
ली जोंग-गु (2007-2011)
जियोन बियोंग-यूल (2011–2013)
यांग बियोंग-गुक (2013-2016)
जियोंग गि-सोक (2016–2017)
जियोंग यून-क्योंग (2017–2020)
केडीसीए के आयुक्त
जियोंग यून-क्योंग (2020–2022)
पेक क्योंग-रैन (2022–वर्तमान)