SAYUL_IRAN
SAYUL GLOBAL NETWORKS
4 Jan 2021
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Visit Korea - http://arabic.visitkorea.or.kr/

FACTS: KOREA - https://www.factsaboutkorea.go.kr/mwelcome.do?ln=ar

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코리아넷 - https://arabic.korea.net/

Iman Ghasemi
20 Sep 2022
Views 6

Topic:   Top four Korean fairytales

Name:   Iman Ghasemi Deligani, Zahra Rezvani, Nilufar Hosseinizadeh

Brief introduction: it's about the top 4 Korean fairytales which are very popular in Korean literature and also gives some information about international fairytales around the world 



Introduction 


Today, fairy tales are known for elements such as elves, goblins, dragons, dwarves, giants, magic, and wizards. Fairy tales are short stories in the folklore genre that try to tell a story with different elements that may be true or generally unreal or true. At some point, epic stories are mixed with fairy tales, but it should be known that these two are completely different from each other.

Jātakas stories that show the Buddha's teachings are created from the combination of local stories and legends, and the Buddha appears in his previous births in the form of animals and humans. These Jātakas stories are one of the most important literary books of India, and one of its stories have been left in the Sogdian language, which is one of the Iranian languages.

Now, many words have been said about how fairy tales and other stories are distinguished from each other. Stat Thompson points out that talking animals and magic appear to be more present in the fairy tale than the fairies themselves. However, the mere presence of talking animals does not make a story a fairy tale, especially when the animal is a human mask, as in fairy tales.

And Steven Swan Jones identified the presence of magic as a feature by which fairy tales can be distinguished from other types of folktales. Davidson and Chaudry identify "metamorphosis" as a key feature of the genre, and Italo Calvino refers to fairy tales as speed in literature because of the aesthetic brevity of fairy tales.

And finally, considering that there are two types of oral and written fairytales, and in the oral part, especially in the 17th century, there was a possibility and even happening that these fairytales were transferred to other cultures and other places and even underwent changes. After years, in the 18th century, many folklorists tried to recover these fairytales, which were very pure and were even older than the written versions.



Chilseok 칠석

THE SKY BRIDGE OF BIRDS


No bird is more common in Korea than the magpie. They are numbered by millions. Every day in the year, except the seventh day of the seventh month, the air is full of them. On that date, They are all expected to be away from streets and houses, for every well-bred magpie is then far up in the sky building a bridge across the River of Stars, called the Milky Way.

Boys and girls are usually very kind to the magpies, but if a single one is found about the houses, on the roofs, or in the streets on the seventh of August, woe betide it! Every dirty-faced brat throws sticks or stones at the poor creature, for not being about its business of bridge-building across the Starry River. By evening time, the magpies return to their usual places, for they are then supposed to have attended to their tasks and built the bridge. With their wings for the cables, and their heads to form the floor of the bridge, they make a pathway for lovers on either side of the Silver Stream.

Now, this is the story that Korean mothers tell their children of the Bridge of Birds.

Long, long ago, in the Kingdom of the Stars, a king reigned who had a lovely daughter. Besides being the most beautiful to behold, she was a skillful weaver. There was no good thing to be done in the palace, but she could do it. She was not only highly accomplished but of a sweet temper and very willing. Being a model of all diligence, she was very greatly beloved by her parents and her influence over her father was very great. He would do almost anything to please his darling daughter.

In due time a young and very handsome prince, who lived in Star Land, came to her father’s court and fell in love with the pretty princess. Her parents consented, and the wedding was celebrated with great splendor.

Now that she was a wife and had a home of her own to care for, she became all the more a model of lovely womanhood and an example to all the maidens of Korea forever. Besides showing diligence in the care of clothes and food and in setting her servants a good example of thrift, she thought much of their happiness. Her service to her husband was unremitting. Her chief ambition was to make his life one of constant joy. But the prince, instead of following his bride’s good example, and appreciating what his beautiful and unselfish bride was doing for his happiness, gave himself up to waste and extravagance. He became lazy and dissipated. Neglecting his duties, he wasted his fortune and his wife’s dowry. He sold all his oxen and calves to get money only to lose it in gambling. He borrowed many long ropes of the coin from anyone who would lend him the brass and iron money. Finally, he was so scandalously poor, being on his last string of cash, that he was in danger of being degraded from his rank as a prince, and of having his name spoken with contempt.

The King of the Stars, having seen his son-in-law on the downward way, had more than once threatened to disinherit, or banish him, especially after the prince had parted with his cattle. Yet when his daughter, the young wife, interceded and begged pardon for her husband, the king relented, paid his son-in-law’s debts, and gave him another chance to do better. When, however, the worthless fellow fell back into his old ways, and grew worse and worse, the king resolved to separate the pair, one from the other. He banished the prince, far, far away, six months’ distance from the north side of the River of Heaven, and exiled the princess a half year’s measure of space from the south side of the Starry Stream.

Although the king in his wrath had hardened his heart, even against his beloved child, and had driven her from court and palace, because of her worthless husband, as a signal proof of his compassion, he ordained that on one night of the year, on the seventh night of the seventh moon, they might meet for a few hours.

The young people parted and took their sad journey to the edge of the starry heavens, but they loved each other so dearly that, as soon as they arrived at their place of banishment, they turned round to meet each other on August 7th.

So, when the day came, after six months of weary journeying, they had reached the edge of the Starry River, and there they stood, catching glimpses and waving their hands, but unable to get closer to each other. There one may see them on summer nights shining on opposite sides of the broad Stream of Stars, loving each other but unable to cross.

Feeling that the great gulf of space could not be spanned, the loving couple burst into tears. The flood from their eyes, making the river overflow, deluged the earth below, threatening to float everything, houses, people, and animals away. 

The four-footed creatures, fish and fowls, held a convention, but it was agreed that only those birds with strong wings and able to fly high could do anything. So, the magpies, with many flattering speeches, were commended to the enterprise.

When these noisy and chattering creatures, that are nevertheless so kind and friendly to the sparrows, heard of the lover’s troubles aloft, they resolved to help the sorrowing pair over the River of Stars. Out of their big, ugly nests, they flew gladly to the convention that voted to build the bridge. Sending out the word all over the world, millions of magpies assembled in the air. Under the direction of their wisest chiefs, they began their work of making, with a mass of wings, a flying bridge that would reach from shore to shore of the Starry Stream.

First, they put their heads together to furnish a floor, and, so closely, that the bridge looked as if it were paved with white granite. Then with their opinions, they held up the great arch and highway, over

which the prince crossed to his bride with all his baggage and train of followers. The tables were soon spread and the two royal lovers enjoyed a feast, with many tender words and caresses.


Every year, for ages past, on the seventh day of the seventh month, the magpies have done this. Indeed, although the star lovers meet only once a year, as they live on forever the wife has her husband and the husband his wife much longer than mortal couples who live on earth. It is law in the magpie kingdom that no bird can shirk this work.

Any magpie that tries to get out of the task and that is too bad or lazy to do its part in bridge building, is chased away by the Korean children, who want no such truant around. 

On August 7th, If it is wet weather on the morning of this day of the Weaver Maiden and the Cattle Prince, the raindrops are the tears of joy shed by the lovers at their first meeting. If showers fall in the afternoon, they are the tears of sadness at saying farewell, when the prince and princess leave each other. If any thunder is heard, every boy and girl know that this comes from the rumble of the wagons which carry the baggage of the prince and princess, as they move away, each from the other, homeward.



TOKGABI AND HIS PRANKS_도깨비 


Tokgabi is the most mischievous sprite in all Korean fairylands. He does not like the sunshine or outdoors, and no one ever saw him on the streets. He lives in the sooty flues that run under the floors along the whole length of the house, from the kitchen at one end of it to the chimney hole in the ground at the other end. He delights in the smoke and smut and does not mind fire or flame, for he likes to be where it is warm. He has no lungs, and his skin and eyes are both fire-proof. He is as black as night and loves nothing that has white in it. He is always afraid of a bit of silver, even if it is only a hairpin.

Tokgabi likes most to play at night in the little loft over the fireplace. To run along the rafters and knock down the dust and cobwebs is his delight. His favorite game is to make the iron rice-pot lid dance up and down so that it tumbles inside the rice kettle and cannot easily be got out again. Oh, how many times the cook burns, scalds, or steams her fingers in attempting to fish out that pot lid when Tokgabi has pushed it in! 

But Tokgabi is not always mischievous, and most of his capers hurt nobody. He is such a merry fellow that he keeps continually busy, whether people cry or laugh. He does not mean to give anyone trouble, but he must have fun every minute, especially at night. When the fire is out, how he does chase the mice up and down the flues under the floor, and up in the garret over the rafters! When the mouses lie dead on their backs, with their toes turned upward, the street boys take them outdoors and throw them up in the air. Before the mice fall to the ground, the hawks swoop down and eat them up.

Although Tokgabi plays so many pranks, he is kind to the kitchen maids. When after a hard day’s work, one is so tired out that she falls asleep, he helps her to do her hard tasks. Tokgabi washes their dishes and cleans their tables for good servants; so, when they wake up the girls find their work done for them. Many a fairy tale is told about this jolly sprite’s doings—how he gives good things to the nice people and makes the bad ones mad by spitefully using them. They do say that the king of all the Tokgabis has a museum of curiosities and a storehouse full of gold and gems and fine clothes, and everything sweet to eat for good boys and girls and for old people that are kind to the birds and dumb animals. For bad folks, he has all sorts of things that are ugly and troublesome. He punishes stingy people by making them poor and miserable.

The Tokgabi king has also a menagerie of animals. These he sends to do his errands rewarding the good and punishing naughty folks. Every year the little almanac with red and green covers tells in what quarter of the skies the Tokgabi king lives for that year so that the farmers and country people will keep out of his way and not provoke him. In his menagerie, the kind creatures that help human beings are the dragon, bear, tortoise, frog, dog, and rabbit. These are all man’s friends. The cruel and treacherous creatures in Tokgabi’s menagerie are the tiger, wild boar, leopard, serpent, toad, and cat. These are the messengers of the Tokgabi king to do his bidding when he punishes naughty folks. The common, everyday Tokgabi plays fewer tricks on the men and boys and enjoys himself more by bothering the girls and women. This, I suppose, is because they spend more time in the house than their fathers or brothers. In the Land of Rat-tat-tat, where the sound of beating the washed clothes never ceases, Tokgabi loves to get hold of the women’s laundry sticks which are used for pounding and polishing the starched clothes. He hides them so that they cannot be found. Then Daddy makes a fuss because his long white coat has to go without its usual gloss, but it is all Tokgabi’s fault. If Daddy should get his topknot caught in a rat hole, or his head should slip off his wooden pillow at night and he bumps his nose, it is all Tokgabi’s fault. When anything happens to a boy’s long braid of hair, that hangs down his back and makes him look so much like a girl, Tokgabi is blamed for it. It is even said that naughty men make compacts with Tokgabi to do bad things, but the imp only helps the man for the fun of it. Tokgabi cares nothing about what mortal men call right or wrong. He is only after fun and is up to mischief all the time, so one must watch out for him.

Tokgabi does not like starch because it is white. He loves to dance on Daddy’s big black hat case that hangs on the wall. Sometimes he wiggles the fetich or household idol, that is suspended from the rafters. But, most of all, he enjoys dancing a jig among the dishes in the closet over the fireplace, making them rattle and often tumble down with a crash.

The kitchen maids and the men think they know how to circumvent Tokgabi and spoil his tricks. Knowing that the imp does not like red, a young man when betrothed wears clothes of this bright color. Tokgabi is afraid of shining silver, too, so the men fasten their topknots together, and the girls keep their chignons in shape, with silver hairpins. The magistrates and government officers have little storks made of solid silver in their hats, or else these birds are embroidered with silver thread on their dresses. Everyone who can afford them uses white metal dishes and dresses in snowy garments. Tokgabi likes nothing white and that is the reason why every Korean like to put on clothes that are as dazzling as hoar frost. Tons and mountains of starch are consumed in blanching and stiffening coats and skirts, sleeves, and stockings. On festival days the people look as if they were dipped in starch and their garments encrusted in rock candy. In this manner, they protect themselves from the pranks of Tokgabi.



The Unmannerly Tiger 



This story is a symbol of selfish, ungrateful people who think that they can bully and win everywhere.

Korean families tell this story to teach their children not to be selfish and ungrateful.

A tiger lived in the highland of Kang Wen in a province that from its cliffs overlooked the Sea of Japan, and the villagers gave him the nickname of the mountain uncle. He was very proud among the tigers and boasted of himself and often when the hunters attacked him he was never injured. He was aware of all traps and knew the tools of humans. He lived on high hills in the summer. And when he would go to the village and prowl the stables to hunt a calf or a pig or a donkey, he would often succeed and the people around him would be very afraid of him. 

One autumn day, when he went to the village and was very hungry, he was very careful about hunters and traps, and he didn't think they were close to him. Coming around a big rock, he saw a tiger like himself, and he waved his tail and prepared to fight, and for sure it would be a terrible fight, and he expected to win, and with a jump in the air, he landed in a pit, and a heavy lid fell on him and the pit was closed. And it got dark.

Mountain uncle had often beheld his face and body in water when he stooped to drink but this time not seeing any water he was deceived into thinking a real tiger wanted to fight him.

The hunter had hidden the hole with sticks and leaves. A Buddhist priest arrived who believed in being kind to all living creatures, and hearing the animal moaning, he opened the trap and saw mountain uncle, whose paw was bruised and he said: please Mr. man let me get out I'm hurt badly 

the priest helped him and the tiger went up and grateful the priest and said, I am very grateful to you for helping me, but I am very hungry and I must eat you up

The priest was surprised and angry and protested his ingratitude and said that this behavior is against the law of the mountain he asked the spirit of the tree and he answered him that the man should be freed, but the uncle of the mountain was still not satisfied, the spirit of the rock told the uncle of the mountain that if this priest If you eat it, you will be punished, and if you are so ungrateful as to eat the man who saved you from death, and this behavior is very bad. The tiger was ashamed, but he was very hungry. The priest appointed the toad as a judge to be sure. The toad was wise and said that I should go and see the trap to make a decision. They all went to the trap while the toad and the tiger were investigating. The priest ran away from the gate. The monastery saved itself. And finally, the speckled back investigated the issue and concluded in favor of the man

And the tiger is a cruel and ungrateful animal, and the mountain's uncle went crazy with hunger and anger, and his cunning turned into stupidity. His anger was increasing, he was losing his mind, his nose was rubbed in the crack and he was rubbed on uneven stones and he bled and died. The hunter came and was very surprised and became rich by selling a tiger's fur, bones, and claws; in Korea, nothing sells so well as a tiger.

The toad also told several of his generations about the deception of his mountain uncle.



Light And The Bridge Of Fishes (jomung) 주몽


A little background on the story the original is samguk sagi which gives a full account of jomung's parents Jomung is the Korean name for East Light and he is a founder of the Goguryeo kingdom

He's father Hema sue he came to earth from heaven his mother you ha is the daughter of the river god 

You ha and Hema sue got together she was touched by the beam of sunlight.

A long time ago, a kingdom lived in an area beyond the White Mountains in North Korea. that a handsome young female servant was waiting for him. Every day, he looked at him from the south side, where the dragon pool is inside the lofty peak, raising his white head to the sky. When he was tired of his daily work, he thought about the river from which the dragon pond flows. He hoped to have a son who would rule over a country with a rich river. One day, when he was watching the peak of the mountain, he saw a bright vapor floating like a white cloud from the east, it was getting closer and it hit his clothes. And very soon he had a son. His son was the most beautiful child, but the king was jealous and angry.

And he did not like that boy. He took the child and threw it into the pigsty, thinking that it was his last child, a boy, but no... The roosters breathed into the baby's nostrils and kept him alive. When the king's servants heard the child howl, they went out to see what Something happened. There they saw a happy baby who didn't care about his crib. They wanted to feed him, but the angry king didn't allow him and ordered him to put him in the stable. 

The servants took the boy and put him among the horses in the hope that he would be under the feet of the animals, and the adult female horses were kind and warmed the boy with their breath and gave him their milk. When the king heard the wonderful behavior of the pigs and horses, he bowed his head towards heaven. It seemed that the great will in heaven is that the boy should live and become a man. So he listened to his mother's prayer and allowed him to enter the palace. He grew up there and was raised like a king's son. He was a powerful young man skilled in shooting and very skilled in horse riding. He was very kind to animals and punished anyone who wronged a horse in the palace. Anyone who kills female horses intending to kill them will be killed. And that man was always kind to his animals 

And the king called him East Light. And he made him the master of the royal stable. East Light became very popular, he was called the son of the sun and the grandson of the Yellow River. One day, when he went to the mountains to hunt deer, the king asked him to show his shooting skills. East Light drew the bow and showed his skill and no one can match him and be like him. He shot the arrow behind his head at the target, and both moving deer and flying birds came down. Then everyone encouraged him, but the king was very jealous of him because of the fear that he might take over his government. The young boy could not do anything to make the king happy and he fled to a big and deep river in the south for fear of losing his life. He did not know how to cross there because there was no boat and he did not have time to build a boat because his enemies were chasing him behind him. He shouted: "Ah, can't I pass through here, son of the sun, grandson of the Yellow River?" As if the sun had whispered to him what to do 

He drew his bow and shot many arrows around and into the river until his quiver was almost empty. For a few moments, nothing happened until the water became turbulent and the fish swam towards the East Light and stuck their noses out of the water as if to him. They said to sit on your back we will save you a dense mass appeared behind them and it looked like a bridge and the men could stand on it. East Light shouted let's run quickly, see the king's horsemen coming down the hill following us. The four men ran behind the fish and reached the shore. The king's soldiers shot their arrows in vain to kill East Light and his three companions. The arrows fell short and The river was very deep and wide and the horses could not swim on it. The four men escaped unhurt, and seeing the procession a few miles away, they met three strange persons who seemed to be waiting for him. They welcomed him warmly and asked him to become king and rule. The first with seaweed, the second with hemp clothes, and the third with embroidered clothes

These men represented three classes of society. The first were fishermen and hunters. And the king's sugarcane was happily welcomed by the subjects. The men were tall, brave, and polite.

In addition to being good archers, they were also skilled riders. They ate in wooden bowls and used round dishes for occasions. They used to wear big pearl jewelry and cut red jade jewelry. The Fuyu people gave the most beautiful virgin to this king to be the bride of the king of East Light. She was a very kind queen and loved by her subjects and gave birth to many children. East Light reigned long and happily. Under his reign, the people of Fuyo became civilized and very prosperous. He taught correct governing relationships and marriage rules along with better cooking and home-building practices. He also showed them how to dress their hair. He introduced the wearing of the knot. 

For thousands of years, top knots were fashionable in Fuyu and Korea. Hundreds of years after the death of the East of Light, all the tribes and states in the peninsula south of the Eternal White Mountains wanted to become one nation and one kingdom, they called their country the East of Light, but in a more poetic form, - Cho-sen which means morning glow or land of the morning calm.



Source


1.    Korean Fairy Tales by William Elliot Griffis

2.    Jataka Tales - by Ellen C. Babbitt 1912

3.    Thompson, Stith. Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology & Legend, 1972 s.v. "Fairy Tale" 


imanghasemi98@yahoo.com
23 Apr 2022
Views 23

Topic: Korean family structure changes from 1950

Writers: Iman Ghasemi Deligani, zahra Rezvani, Ghazaleh Bagheri 

Short explanation: a brief explanation about changes that happened in different parts of families in Korea from 1950



Index 


The ideological Aspect 

The small family 

Historical Change Of Household Size

Family structure, rules 







TRADITIONAL FAMILY STRUCTURE

The Ideological Aspect

The family was significantly influenced and transformed by Confucian moral teachings and ethics during Joseon society because the family was the alpha and omega of Korean Confucianism. In other words, among the virtues of Confucianism, the hyo (filial piety to parents) which symbolises patriarchal family structure, was regarded as the most sacred items in the Joseon belief system. Only Joseon society has ever made hyo the core of its social symbolic system. In Confucianism society was seen as woven with samgang i.e. three cardinal relationships; between the monarch and retainer, between parents and children, and between husbands and wives. In (benevolence) was regarded as the highest idea which stabilises and smoothes the society, and ye (courtesy, ritual) the social realisation and objective manifestation of in. To achieve ye, required the practice of o-ryun (five ethical norms). These were the norms of justice and righteousness between the ruler and his vassals: cordiality and closeness between parents and children: distinction between husbands and wives: order between elders and juniors: and trust between friends. Among them, Joseon literati interpreted hyo as the most absolute value which following the original idea of Neo-Confucianism emphasised moral and ethical principles in human relationships. To conclude, the ruling class made hyo the ethics of familial solidarity, stressing cordial devotion among consanguine relations, and made them the principles of harmonious cohesion for society and politics as a whole.

Hyo, largely speaking, had three characteristics in Joseon context; formality, absoluteness, and closedness. The uniqueness of hyo lay in its demand for formalised patterns of behaviour. It was not enough to feel respect only. Children were asked to show their thoughts and feelings in their behaviour and attitude. For example, they were expected neither to comb their hair nor to play a musical instrument when their parents are sick, but to wear only a worried look on their faces. They were asked to hang down their heads when they sat at the same table with their parents. Again they were not expected to turn their backs when they came out of their parents' room etc. In a word, there was a formalised pattern of behaviour from which the degree of hyo could be judged, and which was diffused everywhere deep into family life. Thus the hyo to parents was as seriously formal as the ceremony in relation to a foreign sovereign. The formality of Confucian morals was accelerated from 17th century and was most fully set out in The Handbook of Family Ritual (Sa-ryae-pyeonram) of Yi Jae in 1844. Korean family structure particularly affected by the Handbook, in marriage, inheritance, kinship, and rituals etc. Next, the hyo was, unlike the Eros or Philanthropy, regarded as an unconditional, one-way, and absolute obedience to parents, like Philos in the Bible. The essence of hyo was to make parents feel comfortable mentally and physically. There were two extreme cases during Joseon period, which showed the absoluteness of hyo to parents. A poor farmer was deeply devoted to his parents but was too poor to serve every member of his family. As a result he used to give the first priority to parents. One day, his beloved only son who were aged three was going to eat the food served to the peasant's parents. The peasant, however, thought that he could have as many children as he wanted after he got rich but his parents were the parents he would ever have and moreover would not live till he became rich. At length he decided secretly to bury his infant son alive, so as to support his parents more effectively. Going a step further, the absoluteness of hyo was extended even to the dead parents. For example, a son whose parents passed away, was expected to keep mourning for three years to show his hyo to the dead. In practice he ate crude gruel and water only with no sweet or savoury food like vegetables, meat, liquor, or fruit. He slept, without taking off his mourning dress, under a piece of straw mat instead of a bedquilt and laid his head on a lump of earth instead of a pillow. Furthermore he was expected to leave public life at least for three years and to ill-treat himself as a sinner. He was regarded as a sinner by himself and by his neighbours.

Lastly, hyo, in spite of its humanistic voice, was closed against some groups of people. In other word, the more the hyo idea was deepened and formalised, the mare some were severely alienated and dehumanised by Confucian familism. First of all it was closed against children and juniors. As mentioned above, the essence of hyo was not simply to take care of parents but to respect and follow their opinions unquestioningly. This was widely applied to juniors or subordinates. Hence any creative thoughts or any deviant behaviour from those prescribed in the formal Confucian doctrines were firmly suppressed and sometimes regarded even as a crime. They were asked only to follow ideas of their parents and seniors. This was one of the reasons why Confucianism was fossilised in the later half of Joseon dynasty.

Lastly it was closed against other families, other clans, and the wider society. As mentioned above, hyo to parents was not a rational love but a blind subordination. As a result, Hyo required a man to avenge his parents against their enemies and to welcome persons with whom his parents were pleased, in any case regardless of his father's rightness and wrongness. And it was defined as amoral to respect or love others instead of his own parents. Every kind of behaviour in life, even a success in life was not aimed for himself but to please his parents. It is quite natural that unconditional inclination to hyo shaped a family egoism exclusively against other families, other clans.

In conclusion, Korean familism can be described as a pattern of social organisation to which every kind of values is connected and formulated for the maintenance, continuance, and function of the family group composed of blood relations. Individuals can not be independent from the family, and primary importance is given to the family as a whole rather than each members themselves. 

Furthermore, it is the familial pattern of behaviour, social relation, and value system that was applied to every social area beyond the boundary of the family.


THE SMALL FAMILY

There are various factors that influenced the size of the Korean family. These can be summarised as socio-economic variables, cultural tradition, environmental variables, demographic conditions, etc.

Each of them has a significant influence in its own way on the size of the family. Among them, change in demographic elements has been the most direct and prompt one that influenced the size of the family. This has certainly been the case in Korea for the past more than half a century.

 the demographic transition of Korean families is divided into three stages: the early transitional period, the transitional period, and the post-transitional stage.

 The first stage is distinguished by high rates of both infertility and mortality, which are shown in underdeveloped countries.

 The second stage is marked by a decrease in both rates and the final stage is reached when the low level of both rates results in instability.

the early transitional stage was from the early 1910s to the early 1960s. this period is consist of many historical events like Japanese colonization, the second World War, Independence, the partition of the peninsula, and Civil War, etc. Each of them made a significant impact on demographic change in Korea. For example, the introduction of modern hygiene and medicine, the many deaths during the war, and the huge migration during the colonization were all these factors mingled to influence the demographic condition of the period. During this period the crude death rate (CDR) dropped from 35-40 per 1,000 persons to 25 from 1910-to 1930. 

the transitional stage(from the early 1960s to the early 1980s) was the most rapid decline in the fertility rate in the world and the total fertility rate(TFR) decreased from 6.0 to 2.7 persons.

The most critical reason for the rapid decline in the fertility rate was the success of the Family Planning Programme on the other hand. It was delivered as a part of the Economic Development Five-Year Plan. The second reason for the decline was the marriage age rising.

the post-transitional stage which commenced in 1983 has been characterized by an accelerated decline in the fertility level and the total fertility rate (TFR) decreased to 1.7. As a result, the population growth rate has decreased to below 1 percent.


Historical Change Of Household Size

The reason for the trend of a small families can be traced back to two facts. The first element was an increase in the average age at marriage. Together with an extension of education duration and an increase in women's participation rate in the labor market, both women and men felt no need to hurry up marriage. Self-development was preferred to the reproduction of the next generation. The second reason was the successful execution of the Family Planning program. This had more to do with a strong consensus on the small family norm. The population policies in Korea began to appear as a part of economic development planning. by having new political leadership in 1961, development planners realized that a high rate of population growth interfered with the most important national goal which was to raise income and eliminate poverty in the country. 

Therefore, family planning policies were very decisive, which included improving the social status of women and expanding contraceptive measures nationwide.

to a small family norm and fertility rates as surveyed by KIPH (Korea Institute for Population and Health Affairs) during the last three decades, women like to have no more than two children and no longer have the son-preference idea. The norm of 'three boys and two girls in the early 60s shifted to 'two boys and a girl during the 1970s, and again to a boy and a girl by the middle of the 80s. Responding to the value change, the fertility rate which is a crucial indicator of family size has drastically decreased to even below two children. To sum up, it is not difficult to conclude that present-day Korea has achieved a small family by casting off the son-preference idea.


Family structure, rules 

In attention to korean society in past it can be find very traditional, so we can consider that there are many differences within the family structure, and these differences in the role of individuals in playing their role in the family structure due to age and gender of individuals more or less intense. One of these differences occurs in housekeeping, which is ironically a very important and vital issue for any girl who is going to get married, because cooking and preparing some important foods that were used throughout the year was an important task. It is to the extent that the mother-in-law first tested the girl's cooking to seal the approval of the marriage. Another issue in housekeeping was that the mother-in-law had all the authority for herself and the bride and the other women were not allowed to interfere or comment on household matters and had to be completely obedient to the mother-in-law. Even the elders of the family could not put an end to this tyrannical behavior, and only with the death of the mother-in-law, the bride could have an opinion on the affairs of the house. However, modernity has changed this pattern and made even small differences. Of course, regarding the family structure in housekeeping, it should be noted that rural men were more involved in household chores due to more difficult conditions and manual labor, while urban men were more involved in working in government institutions and offices. Having enough time to join the family to participate in household chores has been a bit difficult. Due to the employment of men and women in urban areas, there has been a need for someone to do the housework for them. In the past, this was the responsibility of slaves, and now it is the responsibility of daily or annual servants, but there is a difference. There is, and that is, the percentage of servants has been very low since time immemorial.

Leaving aside homework, we come to the duties of parents towards their children. Parents have had responsibilities such as academic guidance, out-of-pocket money, home education, and so on. In the Republic of Korea today, due to the introduction of modernity in the country, each parent has his own role, but in the past it was the father who played over 70% of the educational role and the mother in the role of comforter. Traditionally, in the past, it was the boys who were allowed to study and the girls who were not allowed to study, were only allowed to learn housekeeping techniques and delicate female works.

Nowadays, in Korea, fathers have lost their maximum role and have a much smaller role than in the past, to the extent that fathers are providing more for themselves and even have very little contact with family members. The reason is that Korean fathers work hard to build a better life for their families.

Leaving aside the duties of a father, and let check the duties outside the home, which has been a symbol of the important duties of fathers. The fathers (men) covered all external activities and the wife or any other woman was not allowed to interfere or comment even after the death of the husband of the first son who continued the path of the father. Samjong's principle about women was highly praised and became one of the most important principles that introduced the man as the main leader of the family. But with the advent of modernity, the mechanism of society changed, now girls and women were allowed to cooperate in external and internal activities of the family, and their job status had also improved, but the relationship between the two sexes is still a bit abnormal and not constructive. In rural areas, work can also be seen being divided by gender.



Iman Ghasemi
25 Feb 2022
Views 27

Topic : Similarity between first full moon in korea and new year's bonfire night in Iran

Writers : Iman Ghasemi Deligani, Zahra Rezvani, Ghazaleh Bagheri

Brief explanation: our article is about two customs that really similar together in different parts and in soul!

Link: 


Daeboreum 대보름

Bridge Crossing 다리밟기

Daljip taeugi _달집태우기 

Game Jwibul-nori (Fire Rat)

Sell Your Heat (Deowi-palgi_더위팔기)

Iran new year's Bonfire night

Belief in the derivation of the bonfire night from the Sadeh festival  

Costumes that happen in bonfire night 

Similarities between first full moon and bonfire night 




Jeongwol Daeboreum 정월대보름 


Daeboreum(대보름); is the fifteenth day of the first lunar month.  For Koreans, the moon symbolizes femininity and affluence. In the past, when the lunar calendar was used more widely, every fifteen days with a full moon was meaningful.  Of these "fifteenth" days, the fifteenth day of the first month after the new year begins has been seen as an important holiday no less important than soalnal(설날) itself, and everyone gives throughout the day various foods and customs. 

The celebration of the daeboreum(대보름) festival is commemorated as gratitude to the creator for having been given a good harvest and also given a long life.  The activities carried out during the cultural festival of Daeboreum(대보름) have a lot of meaning. 

In the past at the night of Daeboreum(대보름), especially women and children will light torches and head to the top of a hill or other high place to await the appearance of the moon. It is said that the first person to see the moon rising above the horizon will be awarded more of their place in the coming year than any other.  the moon rises higher in the sky, everyone will invoke the moon for good health, good luck and other personal wishes in the coming year. 

On the morning of Daeboreum(대보름), a few hard nut shells are thrown into the yard. People believe that this habit of consuming so-called Bureom(부럼) makes their teeth stronger. For breakfast, they eat nine kinds of old herbs, so-called mug-eun namul(묵은 나물). They also eat rice made of 5 different grains, which symbolizes a pile of grains, which symbolizes the progress of their prosperity.    

In ancient times, people made ogokbap (오곡밥) rice with five grains, a meal they rarely enjoyed in those times and which included rice, millet, sorghum, red beans and beans. They were hoping for a good harvest and for their well-being over the year ahead. The rice is usually served with an assortment of fried seasoned vegetables, known as jinchae (진채) or mug-eun namul(묵은 나물), which were gathered and dried after the harvest. People believed that eating this food would help them suffer less from the heat in the summer.

Farmers also play their musical instruments, to offer prayers to the gods who protect the village, step on the spirit of the earth, and go from house-to-house begging for grain. A traveling troupe of entertainers enters the villager's house, they are given rice or money, the people hope to be spared from disaster or disease.

The other hand, people protect their health by breaking and eating bureom (부럼), special seasonal beans, and drinking a cup of cold wine in the daeboreum (정월 대보름) morning.  People believe that they can boil any time if they want to eat bureom (부럼).  Cold wine is called kibalkisul (귀밝이술) , "The wine that quickens the ear, People in times past believed that if they drunk this alcohol, it would bring sharp and healthy ears and give the blessing of hearing a lot of good news all year around.

They also ate yaksik (약식) made by boiling glutinous rice with dates, chestnuts and ginkgo nuts, mixing them with honey and soy sauce. Meaning “food that is medicinal,” the dish can make up for any nutrients that they were lacking.

Apart from food seasonal, at daebroeum (정월 대보름) people have enjoyed many activities; from morning, walking back and forth on the bridge, burning the fields, etc. 

Besides Boreom (보름) there is also something called jwibultori.  Jwibullori refers to burning grass and weeds on the edge of dry field on the 14th day of the first lunar month. On that day, boys prepare firewood first.  They started with twos and threes to burn wood along the riverbank at night when the moon was rising in the sky.  


Bridge Crossing 다리밟기(Dari-bapgi)


On the way to welcome the moon, it is common to cross at least one bridge to get across the river, which causes the custom of dari-bapgi_다리밟기 (bridge crossing). It is believed that if you cross  12 bridges on the night of the Deaboreum (정월 대보름), you will be able to avoid misfortune for 12 months of the year Over the centuries, bridge crossings have become popular with young and old, men and women, as well as commoners and royalty.  



Daljip taeugi _달집태우기 


Burning of (Moon Shelter or house)

While waiting to "welcome the moon," youths will build a cone in the shape of a branch of green pine or bamboo with an opening facing East, the direction from which the moon rises.  A moon-shaped figure was hung inside and when the moon appeared, the moon shelter was set on fire.  Groups of peasant folk were often there to play live music and dance around the fire.

Koreans traditionally burned "daljip (달집)," or a pile of sheaves and wood chunks, to drive away bad luck and to wish good fortune.



 Game Jwibul-nori (Fire Rat)


 On these days, the edges of fields and paddy fields are burned to clear rats and pests in an effort to reduce crop losses. Similarly, children play related fire games such as burning the "moon shelter" and going around burning branches or torches in a circle. On the night the boys threaded wires into food cans with holes punched in them.  filled with smoldering coals of fiery embers. They then twirled these cans to produce large circles in the darkness. The boy who could determine the biggest fiery circle, round.  and most frankly he was the winner.  This tradition is still going on around Daeboreum (대보름).



Sell Your Heat (Deowi-palgi_더위팔기)


This entertainment practice takes place in the morning of Daeboreum(대보름).  People would walk around the area and call out names of friends and neighbors they would meet.  If they recognize the caller normally, the caller can say: "Sell your heat." In this way, the caller can "sell" or pass on to someone else the heat that callers usually have to endure in the summer.  On the other hand, if the person on call responds with "selling your heat," the caller must take the heat from this individual and then find someone else to pass it on today, the children may appear to be involved in this 






Iran new year's Bonfire night( چهارشنبه سوری)



A special celebration before the Iranian new year called Nowruz, the last Wednesday of the year that all Iranian all over the country celebrate it with some additional customs. There are many stories behind of this old cultural event and Some historians believe that this ancient and evolved festival is a celebration with an older history called the century (Sadeh, سده ); This festival is celebrated by 5 countries and several regions in the world and its original customs are still observed.





Belief in the derivation of the bonfire night from the Sadeh festival



Ibrahim Pourdawood believes that the celebration that is being held today is a modified form of the celebration of the Sadeh; Sedeh means dawn in Avesta and also means 50 nights and 50 days until spring equinox. One of the stories about this celebration is that when Fereydoun, with the help of Kaveh Ahangar, defeats the wicked Zahak and imprisons him on Damavand Mountain, he orders the people to set fire to the roofs of their houses and the Iranians liked the event and continued it.

In other words, it is said that the people gathered in the middle of Bahman and made a big fire, and rejoiced with joy and enthusiasm, as well as dialogue and consensus, so that this bitter cold of Bahman and Esfand would be safe. (According to the ancient Iranians, in February and March, the demonic forces gained a lot of power and they tried to confront them with prayer and celebration.)

The celebration of Sadeh lasted until the time of the Arab caliphs and the Khwarezmshahs, but was forgotten during the Mongol invasion and then its name was mentioned twice, one during the reign of king Mardavij in Isfahan and the other during the reign of king Amir Mahmud Ghaznavi.




Costoms that happen in bonfire night 


- Jumping over the fire

- Spoon-banging

- Smashing the pot

- Fortune telling (fal)

- Burning rue (Esfand)

- eating nuts 


Perhaps the most important part of this celebration is the tradition of jumping over the fire and reciting a poem that says, "My hardships and pains for you and your redness (the heat of the fire) for me."

This is the most attractive and popular part of bonfire night, along with gathering and spending the night with loved ones and eating different nuts and sweets and New Year fruits that bring happiness to our homes before the New Year; In fact, on this day, Iranians wish each other goodness, happiness and a happy future.

The tradition of spoon-feeding can be said to be the same as the ritual in which boys and girls go to neighbors' houses during Halloween and receive chocolates, nuts and snacks from them, with the difference that in the Iranian religion, they seek fortune and happiness. 

Breaking the Earthenware pots has many stories behind it, one of them was that the ancient Iranians thought that evils and iodine were concentrated in the pots and by breaking the pots, they would destroy the evils and in Another story that was common among Iranians in terms of medicine and health was that old and used pots were destroyed due to health issues to prevent possible illness and the spread of diseases, and this was cleaning action.








Similarities between first full moon and bonfire night 



Although bonfire night occurs before the Iranian New Year and Daeboreum occurs after the Lunar New Year, they both have one theme, and that is to wish happiness, health and good luck. The first cultural commonalities between the two festivals are the lighting of fire, which is seen in both festivals and is a testament to warmth and cheerfulness; Another common denominator is eating nuts and various foods, which is one of the enduring customs in two festivals.

In general, although there are different ceremonies in both that do not exist in the other, they have unique themes and similarities that show that the people of Asia have a similar thoughts that is celebrated every year with a celebration separate from the New Year and seek happiness and good fortune.



Sources 

Korea.net

https://www.korea.net/NewsFocus/Culture/view?articleId=155106

National Folk Museum of Korea

https://www.nfm.go.kr/_Upload/BALGANBOOK/817/sesi01.pdf

Korean Education Center in Washington D.C.(KECDC)

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1C0g8vMug-sLLJdBSuJUKW-6N8MSAkRRl/view

Heritage.go.kr-Cultural Heritage Administration-

http://www.heritage.go.kr/heri/cul/culSelectDetail.do?VdkVgwKey=22,00030000,11&pageNo__=5_1_1_0&pageNo=1_1_2_0


Purdawood, Ibrahim (2007).  "Fireworks Wednesday".  Anahita: Purdavood's Iranian Studies Articles.  By the efforts of Morteza Gorji.  Tehran: Book World

Nafisi, Saeed (April 1313).  "Chaharshanbe Suri (Part 1)".




Iman Ghasemi
22 Oct 2021
Views 25

Topic : Iranian and Korean rites 

Writer : Iman Ghasemi 

Short Explanation: it's a brief comparison between Iranian and Korean rites and also similarities that could be found. 

  

____________________________________________________

Contents

Introduction 

Iranians are more sensitive compare to Koreans 

Korea kept the ancestors rites but it's fade in Iran

Iran has also Arabic culture and ancestors rites 

Gut (ritual), mysterious one

Similar to Gut but it is very different inside 

Charye, the one that exist in another way in Iran 

____________________________________________________


  

 Introduction 


To compare Korean and Iranian rites together we can find some elements that are similar to each other but there are so many differences between the two cultures that are going to be  addressed.




Iranians are more sensitive compare to Koreans 



     Since it takes much time for a Persian to conceal their pain of losing a person, Persians usually have wide and long progress of funerals. As mentioned above, funerals are more important than rites.

 

    There are lots of grief  and sadness at the funeral and this progress is so long and there are many costumes in one month after losing a person. It means that Persians have day one, day two and seventh day and at last 1 month after the person's death that they mourn in those days for they lost and people who knows that man they came to the funeral to show their respect and Grief of losing that dear man or woman.

     In the funeral, The Iranian people mourn for that person, and in nights, after the lamentation, they serve dinner for mourners. Iran has annual lamentation just like Korea. The point is, however, that the length of grieving periods of the Iranian funerals are way longer than the mourning periods of the Korean rites.  

     In Iran's society, when a member of family dies, they don't usually work for seven days or even  two weeks but the Korean people have less than Iranian. This is why Persians are more sensible than Koreans.




Korea kept the ancestors rites but it's fade in Iran



     Annual ceremonies for ancestors in Korea are in various forms like kije, charye, sije but in Iran, they just got some annual rites for the people who was killed in war or soldiers who died while they defending from the borders.

     So Korean really respect their ancestors. These valuable ceremonies and activities provide younger generations in Korea with the chance to learn how to respect people who lived before us. 





Iran has also Arabic culture and ancestors rites 



    As mentioned above, Iranians these days don’t have special ceremonies. However, in the Islamic side of iran, they have Ashura Tasua that belongs to Arabic culture. Tasua and Ashura occur on the ninth and tenth days of Muharram, the first month of the Muslim year. The word 'Tasua' means ninth, and 'Ashura' means tenth in Arabic. 

     Tasua and Ashura commemorate the murder of Imam Husayn and certain members of his family in the year 680AD in Karbala. It has been so popular in Iran for 450 years among Iranians became Shia that many people every year also attend an event related to Ashura Tasua called Arbaʽeen.

     Arbaʽein, Chehellom is a Shiite religious observance that occurs forty days after the Day of Ashura. It commemorates the martyrdom of Al-Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad, who was martyred on the 10th day of the month of Muharram.





Gut (ritual), mysterious one 



     Gut is a shamanic ritual in Korea that is associated with spirits, music, and dance. The Korean shamans wear big and colourful clothes when they go into the trance to get help from God and wish one’s welfare. There are several types of Gut below:


1. Naerim-gut (내림굿)

2. Dodang-gut (도당굿)

3. Ssitgim-gut (씻김굿)

4. Jaesu-gut (재수굿)

5. Cheondoje'ui (천도제의)





Similar to Gut but it is very different inside 



     In Iran, there are some people who called Sufiy ( صُوفِيّ‎, ṣūfīy) contrary to Gut this one is individual and it's not for money or fortune. In other words, Sufism is a method of esoteric behavior. 

     In the definition of Sufism, different views are expressed; But its principles are based on the way in which knowing the Creator of the universe, discovering the truths of creation and the connection between man and truth is possible through mystical and esoteric path and not through rational reasoning. Its subject is the negation of self-centeredness and self-annihilation and joining the Creator of the universe. 

     Sufiy usually do Sama and it's like shaman do but they are different in the context mentioned above. a is a type of Sufi dance that involves rotating the body in a trance for spiritual purposes. Sama has an ancient historical background and after Islam, it has found supporters and opponents in this religion, or in other words, Sama is influenced by the movement of the group of lovers under the sounds of daf, reed, tambourine, and melodic poems.







Charye, the one that exist in another way in Iran 



     Charye is an ancestral rite that it involves peoples to prepare traditional foods to generations of ancestors at a family shrine. Like all jesa rituals, charye is customarily only performed by the eldest male heir of a family at the altar of the oldest living male. 

     The food is set on a table before an altar to the family’s ancestors. Each item on the table has a specific place determined by family, city, and tradition. The setting of the table is carefully cared for by the family. The specific food a family may serve during charye varies from one region to another. 

     But in Iran, there are many shrines but they are belonged to religious and important people. They are big and designed by gold everywhere and in special days they have some ceremonies and they give the poor people food, drink and maybe money or clothes; the people that buried in the shrines usually they are sacred or they are a big General or emperor.


 




____________________________________________________

Sources 


1.    Hoseini-e Jalali, Mohammad-Reza (1382). Jehad al-Imam al-Sajjad (in Persian). Translated by Musa Danesh. Iran, Mashhad: Razavi, Printing & Publishing Institute. pp. 214–17.

2.    The Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition Guidebook of Daily Practices and Devotions, p. 83, Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, 2004

3.    Ghazzālī, and Claud Field. The Alchemy of Happiness. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1991.

4.    The intellectual and political life of the Shiite Imams (as). (Rasoul Jafarian, 2008)

5.    Park, Chang-Won (10 June 2010). Cultural Blending in Korean Death Rites

6.    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S235261811830091X#:~:text=Family%20ancestral%20rituals%20are%20divided,year%20on%20major%20holidays)%2C%20held

7.    Lee, Jung Young (1981). Korean Shamanistic Rituals. Mouton De Gruyter. 


Iman Ghasemi
23 Aug 2021
Views 21

Topic : General Surena and General Kim Yu-sin 

Writer : Iman Ghasemi 

Short Explanation: a brief history about tow Big Generals in history of world

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Draft:General_Surena_and_General_Kim_Yu-sin

____________________________________________________



Introduction

Both are the biggest generals in the world but I think not many people know them but for sure they know Genghis Khan and Cyrus the great or even Caesar. Those generals mentioned above are big enough for the works and actions which they did for their country.


Kim,Yu-sin’s action and life


Statue of Kim Yushin inside1.jpg


General Kim yu-shin (김유신).[1] was born in 595 A.D. in Silla kingdom. When he got 14, he became Flowering Knights, it was a place who a group of youth males gathers together to study culture and religion like Korean Buddhism. Then at the age of 34, he became a total commander of Silla. He did such big things in the Korean peninsula. The biggest feature is the unification of Korea. Even though lots of previous kings such as King Dongmyeong[2] and his sons of the Goguryeo dynasty[3] tried to unite Korea as one nation, they failed to do. King Dongmyeong and his sons are defeated by General Kim yu-shin. The unification of Korea was the ultimate dream that every king in the Korean peninsula had. The kings were in a fight for numerous years, but their dreams were not able to become true. Korea was united, however, by Kim, Yu-sin, a strong and intelligent general years after King Dongmyeong of the Goguryeo dynasty. The voyage to the unification had started: Silla broke the alliance with Baekje and attacked Baekje. Afterward, Baekje and Goguryeo became an allay and Kim Yu-shin knew that Silla needs a new alliance. Silla asked for help from Tang. General Kim yu-shin helped Tang take Baekje, and Silla and Tang attacked Goguryeo in north and south. Silla and Tang finally took all over Korea. Unfortunately, however, Tang did not want to leave Korea. To beat Tang, therefore, Kim yu-shin had several wars against Tang and finally won.[4]


Kim,Yu-sin’s legacy 

General Kim[5], Yu-sin died in bed at age of 79. Much of his life is mentioned in Volumes 1 to 3 of Samguk Sagi's book and the first volume of Samguk Yosa's book. His greatest legacy for Korea was the unification of the country, as he was able to defeat the senior generals of Baekje (Gibaek) and Goguryeo (Yeongaesomun), conquer Baekje and Goguryeo, and oust the Chinese rule of the Tang from the Korean Peninsula. He did a big and important work for Korea to be unified at last and to end wars between people who were one and suffering so many years from starving and killing and losing their beloved for noting. The features that Kim, Yu-sin made was big progress that Korea had in the 7th century and helped Korea to become bigger and more stable and also independent.


General Surena

On the other side, Iran has a big general, Surena[6], who fought against Roman Empire. General Surena did things that show his intelligence and his military power. The name of the general is Surena or Rustaham Suren, and he was born in 82 B.C. Although he died very soon, he was very famous among Iranian because of what he did. He was from the Suren family, one of the seven famous Iranian families (during the Parthians and Sassanids). Soren in Pahlavi Persian means strong. Another letter of this family is Windeferen, who was the governor of Sistan in the first century A.D.; His territory stretched from India and Punjab to Sistan. Surena was ranked first in terms of race, wealth, and fame after the king, and due to family decency on the day of the king's coronation, he had the right to wear the royal belt. Surena put Orodes to the throne and captured the city of Seleucia, and was the first to climb the wall of the city and subdue those who resisted with his own hands.


The Battle of Carrhae


The battle of Carrhae.jpg


Julius Caesar, Pompée, and Crassus were the three great Roman generals and rulers (known as Triumvirate I) who jointly ruled the vast lands occupied by the Roman government. They decided to attack Iran at a meeting of Luca on October 3, 56 B.C[7]. Crassus, the ruler of the eastern part of Rome at that time; That is, it was Syria, and to expand the Roman government in Asia, it intended to attack Iran and India. Finally, Iran and Rome fought somewhere in Current Turkey, and the battle between the two nations has been named the Battle of Carrhae[8]. Roman officers reported their defeat of Iran to the Roman Senate: Surena, the commander of the Iranian army, used new tactics and weapons in the war. Every Iranian cavalryman carried a small musk of water with him and did not feel thirsty like us. Water and ammunition were delivered to the infantry with muskets loaded on the camels. The Iranian soldiers took turns leaving the square specially and resting. Iranian riders have the ability to shoot from behind. The Iranians invented new bows with which they were able to strike the feet of our infantrymen, who had built a defensive wall against them with large shields to protect our riders. The Iranians had double-barreled rifles that were fired continuously with a new machine up to long distances. Their swords were not fragile. Each unit used only one type of weapon and did not weigh itself as much as we did[9]. The Iranian soldiers did not give up and fought to the last. It was that we were defeated, lost seven legions completely, and suffered heavy casualties in the other four legions. The Battle of Carrhae, the first war between Iran and Rome, has great importance in history because the Romans suffered a major defeat between the two sects after successive victories for the first time in a battle near Carrhae. This war ended for Rome at the cost of twenty thousand killed and ten thousand captives.


Surena's predestination

Surena and his wife Vishka two times saved the life of Farhad IV, King of Iran, from Roman assassination; who died a second time and were killed by Roman mercenaries. He had 31 and he died when he was young contrary to Kim, Yu-sin who died in 79[10]


General Surena and General Kim, Yu-sin


Surena and Kim, Yu-sin cannot be compared because it was about big empires and the Korean peninsula but both were so smart and they did impossible things that make them the best generals both countries had in history. They both had a big knowledge of fighting with the least warriors but with great tactics that their enemies did not experience before. Also, both generals did things that the kings could not do for many years. Their bravery, intelligence, decency, and their efforts to defend and develop their country deserve praise and respect, although the two are very different in what they did and also in how much they lived. The talent and originality of the family, both generals had the same features, and the actions that the generals did as if they were clever and wonderful made these two generals the best on the planet and immortalized their names.



Footnotes 


  1. 1 ^ https://www.korea.net/NewsFocus/History/view?articleId=144770
  2. 2 ^ http://contents.nahf.or.kr/english/item/level.do?levelId=colko_001e_0030&langTypes=e
  3. 3 ^ http://contents.nahf.or.kr/english/item/level.do?levelId=colko_001e_0030&langTypes=e
  4. 4 ^ McBride, Richard D., II. “Hidden Agendas in the Life Writings of Kim Yusin.” Acta Koreana volume 1 & 2
  5. 5 ^ https://www.korea.net/NewsFocus/History/view?articleId=144770
  6. 6 ^ Dr. Mohammad Moein, Moein Culture Volume 5, Amirkabir Publications
  7. 7 ^ History of Iranians on this day, Dr. Noshirvan Kayhanizadeh
  8. 8 ^ Irannameh, Volume 3, Written by Abbas Mehrin Shoushtari, Bank Melli Iran Publications
  9. 9 ^ Yershman, The Parthians, Iran from the Beginning to Islam, translated by Mohammad Moin
  10. 10 ^ Yershman, The Parthians, Iran from the Beginning to Islam, translated by Mohammad Moin



References


1. Dr. Mohammad Moein, Moein Culture Volume 5, Amirkabir Publications

2. Yershman, The Parthians, Iran from the Beginning to Islam, translated by Mohammad Moin

3. History of Iranians on this day, Dr. Noshirvan Kayhanizadeh

4. Irannameh, Volume 3, Written by Abbas Mehrin Shoushtari, Bank Melli Iran Publications

5. History of Iran before Islam, Pirnia, Abbas Iqbal, Negah Publications, Tehran, 2007

6. McBride, Richard D., II. “Hidden Agendas in the Life Writings of Kim Yusin.” Acta Koreana volume 1 & 2

7. http://contents.nahf.or.kr/english/item/level.do?levelId=colko_001e_0030&langTypes=e

8. https://www.korea.net/AboutKorea/History/Three-Kingdoms-other-States

9. https://www.korea.net/NewsFocus/History/view?articleId=144770 Category:History Category:Iran Category:Korea


Writer: Iman Ghasemi Deligani 


Shaqayeq azizi
8 Jun 2021
Views 14

Topic: Gimnyeomggul


Writers: Mahtab Rahmani, Iman Ghasemi, Shaqayeq Azizi


Short explanation: The Gimnyeonggul Lava Tube, located in  Jeju City, is one of the World Heritage Sites in South Korea ...

Link:

https://fa.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%BA%D8%A7%D8%B1_%DA%A9%DB%8C%D9%85_%D9%86%DB%8C%D8%A7%D9%86%DA%AF

Shaqayeq azizi
8 Jun 2021
Views 14

Topic: charye


Writers: Mahtab Rahmani, Iman Ghasemi, Shaqayeq AZizi

Short explanation: We added "Charye" as one of the several kinds of ancestor rituals, to jesa. Charye is a memorial service for one's ancestors that is performed during Seollal (Lunar New Year's Day), Chuseok (Korean Thanksgiving Day) and other traditional Korean holidays.


Link: https://fa.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AC%D8%B3%D8%A7

Shaqayeq azizi
8 Jun 2021
Views 17

Topic: jesa


Writers: Shaqayeq AZizi

Short explanation: Jesa is a ceremony commonly practiced in Korea. Jesa functions as a memorial to the ancestors of the participants...


Link: https://fa.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AC%D8%B3%D8%A7

Shaqayeq azizi
9 May 2021
Views 19

Topic: The Ministry of Economy and Finance (South Korea)

Writer: Shaqayeq Azizi

Short explanation: The Ministry of Economy and Finance (abbreviated to MOEF) oversees the financial policies of the South Korean government.

Link: https://fa.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%88%D8%B2%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%AA_%D8%A7%D9%82%D8%AA%D8%B5%D8%A7%D8%AF_%D9%88_%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A7%DB%8C%DB%8C_%DA%A9%D8%B1%D9%87_%D8%AC%D9%86%D9%88%D8%A8%DB%8C