(1) Topic: UNESCO Cultural Heritage of Korea(ကိုရီးယားနိုင်ငံရဲ့UNESCO အသိမှတ်ပြုယဉ်ကျေးမှုအမွေအနှစ်များ)
(2) Writers: မေသက်မြတ်နိုး
(3) Short Explanation: ကိုရီးယားနိုင်ငံသည်ယူနက်စကိုကအသိအမှတ်ပြုထားသောယဉ်ကျးမှုအမွေအနှစ်များနှင့်ပြည့်နှက်နေသည်ကိုဥပမာများဖြင့်ဖော်ပြထားပါသည်။
(5) The whole article
All of us definitely know that South Korea has rich cultural heritage and most of them are recognized as UNESCO cultural heritage. The historical background of Korea's Cultural Heritage Sites is diverse, encompassing the history of Korea from ancient times(Dolmen sites) to the Joseon dynasty. The sites embody a wide variety of values from tidy and neatartistic spirit to scientific rationality as witnessed in the traditional architecture of royal palaces or temples. A total of thirteen Korean cultural sites are registered on the list of World Cultural Heritage divided into Natural Heritage Sites, Intangible Cultural Heritage, and so on. Among these, I would like to discuss the most famous Cultural Heritage in Korea recognized by UNESCO.
Seokguram Grotto is really famous in Korea. The construction work for this grotto was started in 751 by Prime Minister Kim Daeseong during the reign of King Gyeongdeok of Silla and was completed in 774 during the reign of King Hyegong of Silla. At first, the name Seokbulsa was attached to it. The grotto was built with white granite stone on the mid-slope of Tohamsan Mountain. The main Buddha placed inside the grotto is surrounded by a wall inscribed with 39 images including those of bodhisattvas, disciples, guardian deities, and Heavenly Kings. A path links the grot’s round main chamber to the rectangular front chamber. About 360 flat stones cover the dome-shaped ceiling, the likes of which cannot be found elsewhere in the world. Four images of heavenly guardians are standing on each side of the rectangular front chamber. Each side of the wall of the entrance is engraved with guardian deities. Each side of the walls of the path leading to the main chamber contains two images of the Four Heavenly Kings. An octagonal stone column on each side of the entrance to the main chamber. The seated statue of the Main Buddha is placed a little behind the center of the round-shaped main chamber. Two images of heavenly guardians, two images of bodhisattva s, and ten images of Arhats fill the walls of both sides from the entrance. Placed right behind the Main Buddha is an image of the eleven-faced Avalokite svara Bodhisattva. The images found inside this grotto are first-rate sculptural masterpieces. The image of the Main Buddha suggests advanced sculptural skill and near-perfect realistic expression. The image of the eleven-faced Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva gives the impression of flamboyance. The images of the guardian deities, Four Heavenly Kings, and bodhisattvas display gallantry, dignity, and gracefulness, respectively. The images of Arhats are uniquely portrayed.
The Gupta-style Main Buddha statue placed in the main chamber is said to be an object of sublime esthetic quality. One feels the sublime mind deep inside his heart from the quiet cross-legged stance, the slumberous eyes, the gentle eyebrows, the middle of the forehead exuding wisdom, and the long ears. We can see the beliefs of Buddhism in the past and other famous Buddhist statues in the temple. Seokguram Grotto, which was made in the mid-8th century during a golden period of the culture of the Unified Silla shows that the sculptors were those who understood Buddhism deeply. The masterpiece was built based on advanced geometric, architectural, and esthetic sense. One feels magnanimity and sublimity from the images there amid the well-balanced ratio between said factors. The Grotto is a structure portraying the moment Shakyamuni attained enlightenment with architectural and sculptural skills. The images look full of energy and are portrayed naturally with first-rate artistic skills without a trace of artificial techniques. By attaining enlightenment, Shakyamuni becomes a metaphysical figure Buddha, with the mundane world becoming a real m or a sphere (dhatu) of the Dharma or Absolute Reality.
Despite its cultural importance to Korea, Bulguksa was never intended to be a major temple when it was constructed by King Beopheung in 528. However, the original wooden structure was transformed and expanded in 751 by Prime Minister Kim Daeseong, legend has it, personally designed the temple and dedicated it to the memory of his ancestors. The temple was completed in 774 by the Silla royal court and given the name Bulguksa ("Temple of the Buddha Land"). The temple was renovated during the Goryeo Dynasty and the early Joseon Dynasty before it was burned to the ground during the Imjin War. Between 1604 and 1973, Bulguksa underwent various renovations and expansions involving extensive archeological investigations, most notably during the heritage practices of President Park Chung-Hee’s era. The construction work for Bulguksa Temple was started in 751 by Prime Minister Ki m Daeseong during the reign of King Gyeongdeok of Silla and was completed in 774 during the reign of King Hyegong of Silla (i.e., same years of commencement and completion of work as Seokguram Grotto). Located on a mid-slope west of Tohamsan Mountain, the temple is recognized as a monumental workpiece of art displaying deep Buddhist philosophy as well as the spirit of genius artists. The temple is a result of the portrayal of Buddha’s land dreamt of by the people of Silla. The temple embodies Sakyamuni’s world of suffering based on the Sutra of the Lotus, Amitabha Buddha’s Land of Happiness based on the Infinite Life Sutra, and Vairocana Buddh’s world of universal lotus flower based on the Avatamsaka Sutra. The temple’s overall layout is divided into two areas: the area centered on the Main Hall, including Cheongungyo Bridge, Baegungyo Bridge, Jahamun Gate, Beomyeongru Pavilion, Jwagyeongru Pavilion, Dabotap Pagoda, Seoggatap Pagoda, Museoljeon Hall, etc., and; the other centered on Amitabha Buddha Hall, including Chilbogyo Bridge, Yeonhwagyo Bridge, Anyangmun Gate, etc. The grandiose and unique stone structure that comes into view when you look at the temple in its front dates back to the time of its foundation in the 8th century. The wooden structure on the stone structure was refurbished in the 18th century after being destroyed during foreign invasion. The roofed corridors were restored in the 1960s. Various well-trimmed stone parts including rectangular ones, arch-shaped ones, round columns, and balustrades were used for the temple. Especially, the exquisite stone columns and balustrades of Chilbogyo/Yeonhwag yo Bridges make one marvel. Experts speak highly of the three-tiered stone Seoggatap Pagoda (height: 8.2 m)for its well-proportioned body and simplistic yet grandiose structure and Dabotap Pagoda (height:10.4 m) for its complex and flamboyant appearance and unique and creative expression techniques. Bulguksa Temple is preserved as a historic site (Historic Site No. 502). Those designated as cultural heritage items include: Dabotap Pagoda (National Treasure No. 20), Seo ggatap Pagoda (National Treasure No. 21), Cheongungyo and Baegungyo Bridges (National Treasure No. 23), Chilbogyo and Yeonhwagyo Bridges (National Treasure No. 22), Gilt-bronze Amitabha Buddha Statue (National Treasure No. 27), Vairocana Buddha Statue (National Treasure No. 26), etc. The temple and Seokguram Grotto were registered with UNESCO as a world cultural heritage in December 1995.
Seokguram Grotto and Bulguksa Temple is another world heritage site comprising two religious monuments rich in Far Eastern Buddhist art. Both Bulguksa and Seokguram represent the highly developed architectural skills of the Silla dynasty and form a religious architectural complex of exceptional significance in North-East Asia.
Changdeokgung was awarded World Heritage Status in 1997 for having had great influence on the development of Korean architecture, garden design, and landscape planning over many centuries. The palace grounds are spectacular, comprising royal buildings and a rear garden that boasts a 300-year-old tree, a pavilion, and a small pond. Construction of the palace began in 1405 and was completed in 1412. Changdeok Palace is also known as Aesthetics of Harmony with Nature. Royal palaces symbolized state sovereignty and regal authority as official residences of kings where they lived and governed. Seoul, the seat of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), has five royal palaces: Gyeongbokgung, Changdeokgung, Ch anggyeonggung, Deoksugung, and Gyeonghuigung. Some of these palaces were built as replacements for those lost in wars or fires, and some when the royal family needed more living space. Gyeongbok Palace, the first and main palace of Joseon, was built in 1395, the fourth year of Taejo, the founding monarch. Changdeok Palace was built in 1405, the fifth year of Taejong, the third ruler. It was primarily intended to be used as a separate palace in emergencies or when the king wanted to reside outside of the main palace. However, during the early years of Joseon, most kings preferred to live in Changdeok rather than Gyeongbok Palace, which was haunted by memories of bloody power struggles surrounding the throne.After the Japanese Invasions of 1592-1598, when all of the palaces in Seoul were burned down, Changdeok Palace became the king’s official main residence and the financial y-stricken court of King Gwanghaegun rebuilt it first. Gyeongbok Palace was left in ruins for over 270 years until Prince Regent Heungseon, the birthfather of King Gojong, undertook his controversial reconstruction of the palace to boost the power of a waning dynasty. Eventually, Changdeok Palace was used more broadly throughout Joseon’s five-century rule.Changdeok Palace, or the “Palace of Illustrious Virtue,” is nestled in a compound of some 480,000 square meters that sprawl around the foot of Mt. Eungbong, sitting in front of Bohyeon Peak with Mt. Bukhan in the distant background.
The site plan markedly differed from the traditional Chinese-oriented style of palatial construction, which, as exemplified by Gyeongbok Palace, typically had a symmetrical arrangement of major halls and gates along the north-south axis on flat ground. The mountain palace lacked a man-made axis regulating its spatial layout. Instead, it followed native Korean values emphasizing harmony with nature, resulting in an intriguingly flexible ground plan.
Changdeok Palace today looks far different from its original appearance as depicted in the “Picture of the Eastern Palace” (Donggwol do), drawn around 1830. A highly valuable cultural asset itself, the court-style documentary painting provides an accurate view of Chan Gdeok and Changgyeong palaces in the eastern part of the old capital city. Both palaces have not only been reduced considerably in scale but distorted in shape, due to the ruthless destruction that occurred under Japanese rule during the early 20th century. Palace structures were removed or turned into entertainment venues; some were moved from one palace to another. Lending in with the topography, Changdeok Palace follows the basic geomantic (pungs u) principle of an ideal home with a mountain at the back and water in the front. Still, the site plan faithfully reflects the three major rules of palatial construction. That is, government ice is placed in the outer court and the private residence of the royal family is in the inner quarters behind; the royal palace is behind nine gates, with the king’s quarters surrounded by many layers of buildings and courtyards for the sake of security; and the eastern section of the palace is reserved for the crown prince, a symbol of rising power, and the queen dowager and other senior ladies of the royal family. The grounds of Changdeok Palace are largely divided into four areas: the entrance area, the office area, the royal residence, and a rear garden. The entrance area has two major features - the main entranceway, Donhwamun, meaning the “gate of sincere edification,” on the southern edge of the palace compound and the front courtyard where the Geumcheon, the “forbidden stream,” flows through. Outside the palace grounds, the stream joins the Cheonggyecheon flowing through the old city, symbolizing the unity of the king and the people.
The stone bridge spanning the “forbidden stream” represents the first step into the
royal sanctuary. It is also the gateway to the office area, which has the Office of Special Advisors (Hongmungwan), the Office of Royal Scribes (Yemungwan), and the Royal Infirmary (N region), among other government offices. All of the court offices have been restored since 1991 after being removed during the colonial period. Lording over these court offices is the Hall of Benevolent Governance (Injeongjeon), the throne hall, where many important state events were conducted throughout the Joseon period, and the Hall of Administering Governance (Seonjeongjeon) which served as the king’s offices. The rear garden of Changdeok Palace epitomizes traditional Korean landscape architecture characterized by the aesthetics of nature.The natural contours of hills and valleys, waterfalls, and woods are conserved in their pristine condition by minimizing man-made.
Although it was mainly intended as a private space for the royal family to relax and enjoy leisure activities, the rear garden was also used for banquets and special military exercises like archery, which the king attended. The serenee rural atmosphere was considered ideal for reading and academic research as well, not to mention demonstrations of tilling and silkworm growing by the royal family.Like all other royal palaces of Joseon, Changdeok Palace is neither ostentatious nor luxurious. The palace exemplifies the moral value of the Confucian-oriented Joseon Dynasty which cherished modesty and frugality, doing away with extravagance. Its earliest basic statute, Joseon Administrative Code (Joseon gyeongguk jeon) has the following statement: “If a palace is ostentatious, it will cause trouble for the people; if it is shabby, it will not be able to show the dignity of government. Frugal but not shabby and splendid but not ostentatious this must be what is beautiful.”
Changdeok Palace contains numerous stories from the five-century history of Korea’s last monarchy as its center stage. In spite of its checkered history and lost splendor, the palace is revered as a preeminent repository of unique Korean traditions and aesthetics humbly but elegantly harmonized with nature. In this context, UNESCO said upon its decision to inscribe the palace on the World Heritage List in 1997: “Changdeok Palace is an outstanding example of Far Eastern palace architecture and garden design, except for the way in which the buildings are integrated into and harmonized with the natural setting, adapting to the topography and retaining indigenous tree cover.”Although there are numerous cultural heritage in Korea, these are the most famous and stunning. If you go to Korea, you should visit these places because you can see the historical architecture, traditions, religions, and architecture of ancient Korea.
6- sources -http://english.cha.go.kr/cha/idx/SubIndex.do?mn=EN
Grotto - a small picturesque cave, especially an artificial one in a park or garden.
Guardian deities - The guardian of something is someone who defends and protects it.
Sculpture is the art of making three-dimensional representative or abstract forms, especially by carving stone or wood or casting metal or plaster.
Enlightenment – the movement of the 18th century that stressed the belief that science and logic give people more knowledge and understanding than tradition and religion.
temple-a building for religious practice
Illustrious virtue -the originally good nature of man, the fullness of principle with which we are naturally endowed.
Changdeokgung - 창덕궁
Jangyeongru - 장영루
Sukguram - 석굴암
Joseon - 조선
Silla - 산라
Tohamsan - 토함산
The Yeonhwagyo (Lotus Flower Bridge, 연화교) and Chilbogyo (Seven Treasures Bridge, 칠보교)
1.Title: How to Play Ttakji
2.Name: Zin Wai Yan
3.Introduction: A Korean traditional game played with square shaped paper and played with at least two to many people.
What is Ttakji
A Korean traditional game played with square shaped paper and played with at least two to many people. These days, it kind of started to disappear as paper become cheap and it is no longer valuable to collect them.
You can use different kinds of paper to fold ttakji such as calendar, magazine or paper box. It has to be light in order for the ttakji to not be flipped easily and strong so that it could flipped the opponent ttakji well. So, tape and glue are used to make those two characteristics exist at the same time.
It can be in different sizes depend on player.
It is folded by joining two or four pieces of paper. The one made with two pieces of paper is called single-sided ttakji and ttakji made with four pieces of paper is called double-sided ttakji.
How to play
There are various methods to play with ttakji which are flipping, flying, hitting, pushing.
Its main goal is to flip other people’s ttakji. First, determine who to do first by rock, scissors, paper. Then the loser has to put his ttakji on the ground and the winner has to hit that. If the ttakji flips, he wins and got the opponent’s ttakji and if not, next person got the chance.
It is a game where the competitors have to throw their ttakji away with one hand. The one who got the furthest wins. However, sometimes the line is drawn and the one who is the closet to that line wins.
3. Hitting a Wall
The players have to hit their ttakji towards the wall and the person who reach the furthest from the wall would win.
4. Pushing Out
The circle has to be drawn and one player has to put its ttakji inside the circle and the other have to push it away. If the ttakji is pushed out of the circle, the ttakji should be given to opponent and if the ttakji who have to push got into the circle, it is also defined as losing.
Tips for playing
The accuracy and strength are the most important things. If you hit near the ttakji, it is easier to hit the center. If you hit further away, there would be too much strength going in so it is important to balance these two.
The play got popular through a variety show called running man. It is a variety show which has many international fans so it become popular world-wide. In one episode of running man in 2014, it hosted a competition in which members scouted students from different universities who played ttakji well and competed.
Later, the game was included in a Netflix show called Squid Game which make the game well-known again.
(1) Topic: နိုင်ငံတကာကျောင်းသားများအတွက် ကိုရီးယား ပညာသင်ဆုများ
(2) Writers: ကြည်ချိုညိုဇင်၊ ယဉ်မင်းအေး
(3) Short Explanation:
တောင်ကိုရီးယားနိုင်ငံသည် K-pop၊ K-drama၊ အစားအသောက်နှင့် အလှကုန်ပစ္စည်းများကဲ့သို့သော နယ်ပယ်များအပြင် လည်ပတ်စရာနေရာကောင်းတစ်ခု အဖြစ် လူသိများသော နိုင်ငံတစ်နိုင်ငံဖြစ်သည်။ ထို့အပြင် ကမ္ဘာ့အဆင့်မီ ပညာရေးအတွက် ရွေးချယ်ထိုက်သည့်နေရာတစ်ခုလည်း ဖြစ်သည်။ ကိုရီးယားတက္ကသိုလ်များနှင့် ကိုရီးယားအစိုးရမှ ပေးအပ်သည့် ပညာသင်ဆု အမျိုးမျိုးရှိသည်။ အောက်ပါတို့သည် ထင်ရှားသော ထိပ်တန်းပညာသင်ဆုများအနက်မှ အချို့ဖြစ်သည်။
(5) The Whole Article:
South Korea is a country which is well known for its K icons such as K-pop, K- dramas, K- food and finally K- beauty products. Not only is South Korea a good place to visit, but also it is a destination where it is good to immerse yourself in education. There are a variety of scholarships offered by Korean universities and even by the Korean government. If you are considering applying to universities in Korea, here are some famous and prestigious scholarships.
Global Korea Scholarship
The Global Korea Scholarship(GKS) is a scholarship program offered by the Korean government to international students who want to pursue their undergraduate, graduate or research studies in South Korea. The scholarship aims to promote international exchange in education and to help foster global leaders.
Here are some important details about the Global Korea Scholarship:
Eligibility: The scholarship is open to students from any country except Korea. The eligibility criteria vary depending on the program level and major. Generally, applicants must have a high school diploma or a bachelor's degree and meet the language proficiency requirements.
Program levels: The GKS offers scholarships for undergraduate, graduate, and research programs.
Scholarship benefits: The scholarship covers tuition fees, monthly living allowance, round-trip airfare, medical insurance, and Korean language training.
Application process: Applicants must apply through the Korean Embassy or the designated university. The application process includes submitting the application form, transcripts, recommendation letters, language proficiency test scores, and other supporting documents.
Selection process: The selection process varies depending on the program level and major. Generally, the selection process includes a document review, interview, and/or language proficiency test.
Obligations: Scholarship recipients are required to maintain good academic standing, participate in Korean language courses, and attend cultural events. Failure to meet the obligations may result in termination of the scholarship.
Application deadlines: The application deadlines vary depending on the program level and major. Generally, the application period for the scholarship opens in February and ends in September.
Overall, the Global Korea Scholarship is a great opportunity for international students to study in South Korea and to gain valuable experience in a multicultural environment.
The POSCO Scholarship is a program established by the POSCO TJ Park Foundation in South Korea to provide financial assistance and other support to talented students from around the world who wish to pursue graduate-level studies at leading universities in South Korea. The scholarship is intended to support students who demonstrate outstanding academic potential and a commitment to becoming global leaders in their respective fields.
Here are some key details about the POSCO Scholarship:
Eligibility: To be eligible for the POSCO Scholarship, applicants must be citizens of one of the following countries: China, India, Japan, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, or Vietnam. Applicants must also hold a bachelor's degree or equivalent from an accredited institution and have a strong academic record and a demonstrated commitment to their field of study.
Scholarship Benefits: The POSCO Scholarship provides full tuition, a monthly living stipend, and other benefits such as Korean language training, cultural activities, and mentorship opportunities. The scholarship covers up to two years of study for master's degree students and up to three years of study for doctoral students.
Application Process: The application process for the POSCO Scholarship typically involves submitting an online application form, along with academic transcripts, letters of recommendation, a personal statement, and other supporting documents. Shortlisted candidates may be invited for an interview or other evaluation, and final decisions are typically made in the spring or early summer.
Fields of Study: The POSCO Scholarship supports graduate-level studies in a wide range of fields, including engineering, natural sciences, social sciences, humanities, and business administration. Applicants should choose a program of study that aligns with their academic background and career goals.
EWHA WOMANS UNIVERSITY SCHOLARSHIP
EWHA WOMANS UNIVERSITY is one of the top private universities located in Seoul. And it was the first educational institute for Korean Women and centers on the idea that women’s education and opportunities should be modernized and expanded and to nurture the female leaders that can create a harmonious society. The university offers comprehensive courses and also gives scholarship opportunities for various international students. There are two scholarships offered by EWHA WOMANS UNIVESITY. The first one is the International Students Scholarship. EWHA Global Partnership Program This is the most famous fully funded scholarship offered by EWHA University. This scholarship is aimed for the international students who are from developing countries with strong leadership potential. This comprehensive scholarship offers a full tuition and admission fees as well as housing and stipends for the whole four years but the winners must maintain the required GPA throughout the semester. But there is one thing that this scholarship does not provide fees for one year of language learning. Therefore, only students who have a TOPIK certificate can apply for this scholarship. International Students Scholarship F4 It is a fully tuition scholarship for 8 semesters and offered to all Bachelor’s, Master and PhD. All interested international students can apply for this scholarship, but they must hold a TOPIK level 6 certificate. The students who won the scholarship must maintain the GPA in order to continue the scholarship. International Students Scholarships M This scholarship is the merit-based scholarship, and it is available for all students who are currently attending the university. The students who have TOPIK level 4 certificate and passing 15 credits in their previous semester can apply for this scholarship. The amount of scholarship can be varied according to the ranking of the students.
YONSEI UNIVERSITY SCHOLARSHIP
Yonsei University is one of the most prestigious universities located in Seoul. As the university is a member of “SKY”, students from all over the world are willing to attend in this university. If you are looking for Yonsei University, there are a variety of scholarship for international students both for undergraduate and graduate. Here are some famous scholarships offered by Yonsei University. Underwood International College (UIC) Underwood International College is the Korea’s first English language literal arts college. The college offers 16 majors in social science, humanities and engineering. There are three scholarships offered by UIC- admissions, merit-based and need-based scholarships. Admission Scholarship is a full tuition scholarship for four years. All the international students apply to UIC are automatically considered as scholarship candidates. But the scholarship winners must maintain the required GPA in each semester in order to maintain the scholarship. Merit-Based Scholarship is the scholarship for the students who are currently attending the university. The scholarship amount may be full of half or one-third of the tuition per semester. Same as the admission scholarship, the winners must maintain the required GPA. Need-Based Scholarship is another type of scholarship for the students who are currently enrolling in the university and need the financial aid. The awardees will be announced at the end of each semester.
References [edit source]
https://www.studyinkorea.go.kr/ko/main.do https://www.yonsei.ac.kr/en_sc/admission/scholarship.jsp https://www.ewha.ac.kr/ewhaen/bachelor/scholarship-iss.do
(6). Glossary: Ewha Womans University- 이화여자대학
Yonsei University- 연세대학
1. The impact of entertainment industry on Korea's popularity
2. မေသက်မြတ်နိုး၊ ဆုယဉ်ဝင်း
3.ယနေ့ခေတ်တွင်ကိုရီးယားနိုင်ငံကျော်ကြားမှုရဲ့အဓိကနေရာတွင်ပါဝင်နေသည့် K Pop, K drama နှင့် Reality showများအကြောင်း
5. The whole article
Nowadays, all of us realize that the popularity of Korea is getting rise day by day because of the enormous impact of K-pop, K- drama, and entertainment programs. In other words, as the entertainment industry is bigger, more is well-known in Korea. We all accept that the achievement of K-pop, K drama, and entertainment programs are spreading worldwide. This achievement has various positive outcomes for Korea in culture, tourism, and economy, which are one of the most developing countries in Asia. Moreover, they have also big awards, popularity, and success not only in Europe but also all around the world. That’s why it’s an honest truth that the impact of entertainment industry give a positive influence on Korea’s popularity.
K - Pop
Music is a cultural aspect of all human societies that are universal. It plays a key role in all social activities. The term "K-pop" became popular in the 2000s. K-Pop is an abbreviation that stands for Korean Popular music. It’s including not only various types of music and dances but also traditional and cultural music in combination with modern types. K-pop is a cultural product that features "values, identity, and meanings that go beyond their strictly commercial value. K-Pop idols and their music have positively contributed to South Korean diplomacy, economy, human rights movements, and the country’s global status for decades, especially during times of high political tension."Many agencies have presented new idol groups to an audience through a "debut showcase" which consists of online marketing and television broadcast promotions as opposed to radio. Groups are given a name and a "concept" along with a marketing hook. During the beginning of the 21st century, K-pop idols began receiving success elsewhere in Asia: in 2002.
In 2023, we all know that idol groups like BTS, Black-pink, and other groups are fundamental for the Korean economy, culture, and tourism. As an example in the Economy, to bring these jobs to fruition. the world-famous song ‘Gangnam Style’ by the South-Korean artist PSY, generated approximately USD 8 million in YouTube revenues on its release in 2012. Moreover, The seven-member K-Pop group BTS took the world by storm with their music gaining USD 4.9 billion for the South-Korean economy. The high point was with the release of BTS’s all-English song ‘Dynamite’ which topped the Billboard Global chart for 18 weeks and generated USD 1.43 billion. The Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, and Korea Culture and tourism conducted a joint study that showed the revenue generated by BTS’s hit song would be able to provide approximately 8000 jobs during the COVID-19 pandemic. With a group of 7 members, SuperM created a futuristic safety video that provided information on the safety feature of the Aircraft, alongside an original song and choreography that was specifically created for the video. This helped boost the national airline’s business and in 2020 Korean Air’s revenue stood at USD 11.2 billion. Tourism and Culture are the key focus of the South Korean economy. It is highly endorsed by K-Pop groups and idols. Music and Tourism work in tandem to bring money into the South Korean Economy. It also gives finances from all around the world by making concerts, fan meetings, and producing albums. With the advent and help of social media and networking, K-Pop music spread rapidly and gained fans internationally not only in Asia but Latin America, North Africa, South and East Africa, the Middle East, and throughout the Western world. According to the International Federation of Phonographic Industry’s ‘Global Music Report’ of 2019, Korean Popular Music was ranked sixth among the top ten music markets worldwide. BTS and Blackpink were the artists that were leading this market growth. Overall, K-Pop helped boost the Korean economy by $9.48 billion in 2018 and $12.3 billion in 2019. On the other hand, K-pop fans in some regions express their desire and respect for how Korea has achieved its economic and cultural development; furthermore, those fans anticipate the ‘Korean dream’ by following Korean culture. The fans not only consume a variety of Korean Wave entertainment content but also participate in Korean cultures, such as through food, language, and traditional events. To sum up, K Pop industry has become the most important part of Korean Popularity.
Today, there is no one who doesn’t know or watch k drama. In our life, all of us have experienced of watching k drama. K drama is the newest global breakthrough for this cutting-edge technology. Korean dramas strike a balance of predictability and originality. Their story arcs are often predictable: rags to riches, rich boy meets poor girl, children defy their parents’ wishes and strike out on their own. The emergence of streaming platforms like Netflix has been the game changer for Korean dramas, in that it guarantees international exposure from the get-go, albeit just via certain membership-based platforms. This could mean Korean dramas could have a larger impact on the global stage. Earlier this year, “Squid Game” star O Yeong-su became the first Korean to win at the Golden Globes, while Lee Jung-jae and Jung Ho-yeon became the first Koreans to win Screen Actors Guild awards in the TV category. The show is also the first foreign series to be nominated for this year’s Emmy Awards, slated for September. As K-dramas extend their global reach, intellectual property rights emerged as an issue for its sustained success. The main reason why Korean dramas are in high demand is that the storyline is interesting and able to make the audience feel emotions and we can know more about Korean culture and their Lifestyles. It’s more effective for those who are learning the Korean Language to improve their language skills. Moreover, when we have some stressful times, we also watch k drama to relieve our stress. While enjoying global popularity, the Korean drama production industry now faces the new task of becoming culturally sensitive. Hallyu has been a blessing for Korea, its businesses, culture, and country image. Since early 1999, Hallyu has become one of the biggest cultural phenomena across Asia. As a result, Korean producers have been able to source capital for these movies from countries outside of Korea, like Japan. People in many countries like Singapore, China, Vietnam, Japan, Taiwan, and Hong Kong are being treated with more and more new movie numbers across the years. The parasite is the first non-English film to win Best Picture at the Oscars alongside 3 other Academy Awards, which is a testament to the global recognition of Korean entertainment products' increasing quality and authenticity. The Hallyu effect has been tremendous, contributing to 0.2% of Korea’s GDP in 2004, amounting to approximately USD 1.87 billion. More recently in 2019, Hallyu had an estimated USD 12.3 billion boost on the Korean economy. Over the last two decades, South Korea has become very rich and very futuristic. In 1965, Korea’s GDP per capita was less than that of Ghana. Today, South Korea is the world’s 12th largest economy. Due to the effort of the Korean government, Korean drama popularity and it’s positive effects are getting bigger day by day.
Korean variety shows are well-known for their zaniness, drama, and unexpected twists and turns. Besides providing enjoyment, they may also provide unique insights into Korean society. They are generally composed of a variety of stunts, performances, skits, quizzes, comedy acts, and so on. Korean variety programs also feature popular celebrities and K-pop idols. Variety shows in Korea do not conform to an established pattern, but instead incorporate diverse television genres such as dramas, documentaries, and information programs. The public's daily life is actively used as material for entertainment programs. The core storytelling of the major event is merged with the story of events or people, and the entertainment program is enhanced. The combination of talk shows and confrontational entertainment became a signature program of each broadcasting business, such as Happy Together Season 3, Radio Star, and Infinite Challenge. Korean content has recently been widely broadcasted in China, Japan, Southeast Asia, North America, Latin America, and Europe. Running Man is a popular Korean television entertainment program that is being exported to China and Southeast Asia.
As a result, it attracts tourists to Korea and may have an impact on the tourism industry. Of the unique perspective displayed on Running Man, foreign tourists have been interested in different aspects of Korean cultures, such as cuisine, fashion, and shopping. With programs of various genres, Korean television has served as a medium for transferring, replicating, and consuming multicultural views. Foreigners, globalization, and multicultural society have all been featured in Korean entertainment shows, and this trend is growing in response to popular opinion. In a society like Korea's, where everyday contact with foreign migrants is unusual, media is a critical way of transplanting and producing multicultural discourses and a powerful tool for raising awareness among various segments of society. Several Korean media outlets show programs with foreigners that depict globalization and multicultural society.
2. ကြည်ချိုညိုဇင်၊ ယဉ်မင်းအေး
3. K-MOOC သည် ကိုရီးယားနိုင်ငံအခြေပြု အွန်လိုင်းပညာရေးဌာနတစ်ခု ဖြစ်သည်။ တစ်သက်တာပညာရေးကို မြှင့်တင်ရန် ရည်ရွယ်ပြီး မည်သူမဆို ကောလိပ်ပညာရေးကို အချိန်မရွေး၊ နေရာမရွေး သင်ယူနိုင်မည့် အခမဲ့ ပညာရေးဝန်ဆောင်မှုဖြစ်သည်။
4. Wikipedia Link -https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Draft:K-MOOC
5. The Whole Article
|Type||Massive Open Onine Course Platform|
14, Cheonggyecheon-ro, Jung-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea (04520)
|National Institute of Lifelong Education|
K-MOOC stands for Korean Massive Open Online Course. K-MOOC is a Korea-based open online learning service that allows everyone to participate in college classes anytime, anywhere. K-MOOC aims to innovate the higher education system with respect to available courses and teaching methods, including exploring innovative ways of learning such as 'Blended Learning' and 'Flipped Learning.'
K-MOOC was launched in 2015 by the National Institute of Lifelong Education under the Ministry of Education. It aims to offer learners an opportunity to access and learn from high quality MOOCs provided by the best institutions in the Republic of Korea, contributing to innovation in higher education as well as initiating the practice of lifelong learning. As of 2023, K-MOOC is together with 116 leading domestic and international organizations.
K-MOOC dreams about a colorful future. Through the simple and close connection of teachers and learners, K-MOOC will help many people create a new and challenging future better than yesterday.
Progress of propulsion
1. 2015 ~ 2017
Introduction and settlement
2. 2018 ~ 2020
Globalization and creation of added value
3. From 2021
Establishment of the higher education system
The Ministry of Education establishes the operational plan for K-MOOC, while the National Institute of Lifelong Education assumes project management tasks, and the participating organizations are responsible for course development, operation, and utilization. The other relevant agencies and MOU agencies are in charge of service utilization, including diffusion and support.
Youth - Access online learning materials to explore future career opportunities.
College Students - Access prior learning materials before coming to class and deepen knowledge through supplements.
Lifelong Learners - Learn about the latest trends and information based on individual aptitudes and interests.
Job Seekers and Employees - Strengthen personal capabilities for employment, discover new business items, and enhance vocational competency.
Faculty - Flipped Learning.
Diversify class activities through flipped Learning, a reversal of traditional teaching, students are introduced to the learning materials before class, and classroom time is then used to deepen understanding through discussions with peers and problem-solving.
University - Develop teaching strategies by analyzing learning data and using reverse learning and the like to promote learning innovation.
Classroom courses are available as web-based online video lectures at no cost. At present, interactive learning methods such as Q&As, discussions, quizzes and assignments and a network of communities between professors and students and among students are available along with the courses. K-MOOC is also available on mobile devices through the application.
K-MOCC offers a variety of courses from various fields such as humanities, social and natural science, education, engineering, medical sciences and pharmacology, arts and physical education and interdisciplinary courses. There are also linguistics and literature courses, secondary education courses, architecture, civil construction and urban engineering courses, transportation courses, precision and energy courses and many others. Most of the courses are conducted in Korean. There are also some courses taught in English. Korean and English subtitles are available in all course video. Some courses are supported with Chinese language.
Course enrollment and certificate upon completion
Learners can enroll in the desired course within the registration period. Registration for a course which has already been started is also allowed. However, it may not be possible to attempt assignments or tests that have already passed their submission deadline depending on the course. Upon achieving a standard percentage or higher, a certificate of completion can be received within 1-2 weeks at the end of each course. However, in order to achieve this, active engagement with the course materials including taking quizzes and completing assignments at the designated time is important. Completing assignments and receiving support from the professor or teaching assistant can be more beneficial in terms of learning and receiving feedback. The validity of the certificate issued by K-MOOC can be checked on the official website.
Previously, individuals were required to apply for an on-going course within a predetermined time frame. Because the course schedule is fixed, it is not possible to individually extend the period or view and submit materials in advance. Once the course period was over, application for that course was not available until the next year. However, with the introduction of an auditing function in 2018, it became possible to apply and attend the lecture even after the course had ended. In such a case, even though the learner can check content such as learning activities and learning materials, a certificate of completion cannot be issued.
There are also academic credit bank system learning courses, which recognize learning experiences acquired both inside and outside of classrooms, granting academic credits toward associate's or bachelor's degrees.
Alongside 116 other top domestic and foreign organizations, K-MOOC offers the best possible education services to foster a generation of lifelong learners. the following collection of universities;
KYUNG HEE UNIVERSITY, POSTECH, SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, SUNGKYUNKWAN UNIVERSITY, KAIST, YONSEI UNIVERSITY,EWHA WOMANS UNIVERSITY, KOREA UNIVERSITY, PUSAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY,KONGJU NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, UNIVERSITY OF SEOUL, DAEGU UNIVERSITY,THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF SEOUL, HALLYM UNIVERSITY, JEONBUK NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, INHA UNIVERSITY,KUMOH NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF UNIVERSITY,SUNGSHIN WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY, CHUNGNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY,BUSAN UNIVERSITY OF FOREIGN STUDIES, HANDONG GLOBAL UNIVERSITY,MOKWON UNIVERSITY,KYUNGNAM UNIVERSITY, UNIVERSITY OF ULSAN, DONGGUK UNIVERSITY, KONYANG UNIVERSITY, JEJU NATIONAL UNIVERSITY,YEUNGNAM UNIVERSITY, SOOKMYUNG WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY,DANKOOK UNIVERSITY, SEJONG UNIVERSITY, SANGMYUNG UNIVERSITY, KYUNGPOOK NATIONAL UNIVERSITY,KOOKMIN UNIVERSITY, SEOUL WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY, JEONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, KONKUK UNIVERSITY, PAICHAI UNIVERSITY, HANYANG UNIVERSITY,SOGANG UNIVERSITY, SEOUL TECH, CHOSUN UNIVERSITY, DAEJEON UNIVERSITY, SUNMOON UNIVERSITY, PUKYONG NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, INHA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, KANGWON NATIONAL UNIVERSITY,SEMYUNG UNIVERSITY, AJOU UNIVERSITY,HANNAM UNIVERSITY, DONGSEO UNIVERSITY, DONG A UNIVERSITY, HOSEO UNIVERSITY, KOREA INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY,NATIONAL RESEARCH FOUNDATION, YUHAN UNIVERSITY,INCHEON UNIVERSITY, HANKUK UNIVERSITY OF FOREIGN STUDIES,KWANGWON UNIVERSITY, MYONGJI UNIVERSITY,KEIMYUNG UNIVERSITY, SOONCHUNHYANG UNIVERSITY and etc.
K-MOOC is assisting a large number of people by developing numerous courses that are not only offered online but also offline in the form of expositions and talk concerts where students can interact with participating university lecturers and take in a variety of performances. It also offers special lectures to students who want to audit university courses and lectures.
Coursera and K-MOOC
On January 14 2022, it was announced that Coursera is partnering with K-MOOC and the National Institute for Lifelong Education to launch a nationwide upskilling program in South Korea. In South Korea, there are now over 540000 students enrolled in Coursera, a 25% rise from 2021. Through this partnership, students in Korea will have access to 70 Korean language courses from top universities and businesses around the world, including Yale University, University of Pennsylvania, Google, and AI, that are relevant to the job market. This collaboration with Coursera served as a crucial starting point for opening up the learning environment for Korean learners to the rest of the world.
K-MOOC in 2022
The COVID-19 pandemic sparked a surge in online learning, resulting in a 30% increase in K-MOOC users to 960,000 and a 33.6% increase in course registrations to 2.26 million. As more and more lectures are created to meet the unique requirements of students in order to provide convenience in the educational aspect, KMOOC made an effort to improve quality in 2022 to better accommodate the needs of various learners.
(1) By categorizing classes into various majors and topics, curricula are systematically arranged to increase learner convenience and make it simple for students to access more than 1,300 lectures.
(2) In 2022, freshly developed lectures will be available with sign language interpretation. To draw both domestic and foreign students, subtitles in Korean and English have been added, making K-MOOC available worldwide. Additionally, KMOOC provides cultural enrichment classes that can offer sign language assistance, allowing hearing-impaired people to fully participate in K-MOOC without encountering any learning obstacles.
(3) To ensure that academic credits are more easily used, K-MOOC offers teacher training opportunities. Additionally, 30 outstanding teachers and lecturers are recognized, which encourages educators to take an active role in the course.
Since the end of August in 2021, in collaboration with EBS, ‘Great Class, Great Minds,’ featuring world famous scholars from humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, has been broadcast, which is slated to continue till first half of 2022.
KMOOC in 2023
The quantity of users who have accessed the content has increased along with the development of K-MOOCs. As of January 2023, there were over 1,160 000 registered users for K-MOOC, 28, 100 000 visitors had signed up for classes, and there had been about 330000 visits from foreigners.
In 2023, 15 new institutions of higher learning will be designated as "K-MOOC leading universities and colleges," and they will be required to launch at least four new courses annually in line with their specialties and top-tier fields, at least two of which must be in the fields of emerging technologies and industries.
The Ministry will expand the amount of top-notch material broadcast in the liberal arts sector and launch "Korean Masters" courses in which academics from both home and abroad can enroll. Additionally, courses containing thematic units about Korea, or so-called K-knowledge, will be created and made available. These courses will cover a variety of subjects about Korea, such as its history, society, economy, education, and future.
The K-MOOC learning data system will be given under the higher education management system, and this credit management system will be integrated with the K-MOOC platform as part of their efforts to facilitate learner-friendly services that can offer dependable and adaptable learning experiences.
Additionally, they are working to expand the base and use of K-MOOC. Moreover, the ministry of education will work with various organizations, such as abroad Korean education centers, to fully support efforts to meet global demands. By utilizing the Global Korea Scholarship program and providing a variety of courses, such as prerequisite courses for foreign students, this will aid in attracting more international students.
7. The Glossary of Romanization of Korean (Excel File)
1. ဆိုးလ်စီးတီး ခရီးစဉ် ဘတ်စ်ကား
3. Seoul City Tour Bus (ကိုးရီးယား: 서울시티투어버스) သည် တောင်ကိုရီးယားနိုင်ငံ၊ ဆိုးလ်ရှိ နာမည်ကြီး ခရီးသွားဆွဲဆောင်မှုများမှတစ်ဆင့် ပြေးဆွဲပေးသည့် သယ်ယူပို့ဆောင်ရေးဝန်ဆောင်မှုတစ်ခုဖြစ်သည်။ Seoul ကို ပထမဆုံးအကြိမ် လာရောက်လည်ပတ်သူများအတွက် အကြံပြုထားသည့် ဝန်ဆောင်မှုတစ်ခုဖြစ်သည်။
Seoul City Tour Bus
Seoul City Tour Bus (Korean: 서울시티투어버스) is a transportation service that shuttles through the popular tourist attractions in Seoul, South Korea. It is a service recommended for those who visit Seoul for the first time. The bus service would make the travelers to visit the locations in ease as it offers foreign audio guide in 11 different languages such as English, Japanese, Chinese, French, German, Russian, Spanish, Thai, Vietnamese, Indonesian, and Malaysian and the companies are currently working on adding more languages.
Popular Bus Services
- Tiger Bus
- Yellow Balloon City Bus
Open Top Bus
Double Decker Bus
1. Downtown Palace Namsan Course(도심고궁코스)
It takes visitors to historic royal palaces, National Museum, popular destinations such as Namsan Seoul Tower and Seoul’s prime district like Itaewon Route Map - https://www.seoulcitybus.com/images/detail/bts_map_01.png
End Point: Gwanghwamun
Bus Frequency – every 60 minutes
- Namsangol Korean Town / House of Korea
- THE AMBASSADOR SEOUL – A PULLMAN HOTEL
- Silla Hotel
- Namsan Seoul Tower
- Hyatt Hotel
- Dongdaemun Market
- Cheongwadae (Blue House of Korea)
- The National Folk Museum of Korea
- Sejong Center for the Performing Arts
2. Panorama Course (파노라마코스)
Temporarily suspended due to Corona Virus
It takes visitors to popular destinations like Namsan Seoul Tower, Han River and Seoul’s scenic spots.
3. Night Course (야간코스)
Offers beautiful night view with the Han River which is one of the most popular attractions of South Korea.
Route Map -
From: Gwanghwamun (Base Point)
End Point: Cheonggye Plaza
Bus Frequency - Once daily
- Mapo Bridge
- Seogang Bridge
- Gangbyeon Expressway
- Banpo Bridge
- Sebitseom Island
- Dongjak Bridge
- Seongsu Bridge
- Hannam Bridge
- N Seoul Tower
- Namdaemun Market
- Cheonggye Plaza
4. Around Gangnam Course (강남어라운드코스)
Temporarily suspended due to Corona Virus
This course will take the visitors to famous attractions like Seonjeongneung Royal Tomb, COEX and Lotte World Tower.
Yellow Balloon City Bus
1. Traditional Culture Course (전통문화코스)
Through visiting downtown of the Seoul, Famous Palaces and traditional Markets, visitors can see the present and past of the city.
From: Dongdaemun Design Plaza
End Point: Shingdangdong Jungang Market
Bus Frequency: Every 40min(weekdays) / Every 30min(weekends)
- Dongdaemun Design Plaza
- Bangsan, Jungbu Market
- Euljiro 3-ga
- Euljiro 1-ga
- Tong-in Market
- Gwanghwamun Square
- Seoul Station
- Namdaemun Market
- Namsan Ormi
- Gwangjang Market
- Seoul Folk Flea Market
- Majang-dong LiveStock Market
- Sindang-dong Jungang Market
2. Hangang/Jamsil Course (한강잠실코스)
Visitors can observe the Famous Han River, Seoul’s highest building; 123-story Lotte World Tower and Seoul’s prime district, Gangnam region.
3. Night View Course (야간운행코스)
Visitors can see the beauty of Seoul’s night view.
From: Dongdaemun Design Plaza
End Point: Jongmyo
Bus Frequency: Once daily
- Dongdaemun Design Plaza
- Bangsan, Jungbu Market
- Euljiro 3-ga
- Euljiro 1-ga
- Tong-in Market
- Gwanghwamun Square
- Seoul Station
- Namdaemun Market
- Namsan Ormi
- Gwangjang Market
CourseAdult (KRW)Child (6~12) (KRW)Under 6 (KRW)
|Downtown Palace Namsan Course||24,000||15,000||Free|
|Night View Course||20,000||14,000||Free|
Yellow Balloon City Bus
CourseAdult (KRW)Child (6~12) (KRW)Under 6 (KRW)
|Traditional Culture Course||20,000||15,000||Free|
1.Topic: Korean Traditional Food
2. Writer: Hsu Yin Win, May Thet Myat Noe, Yin Min Aye
3. Short Explanation: Korean traditional food
Today, Korean food is the most popular food in the world. In addition to Kimchi and Noodles, other types of food are also penetrating the country and are liked by people from all over the world. And we love Korean food too. There are hardly any Korean restaurants in every country. That's why we would like to give a presentation about Korean food.
4. Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Draft:Korean_Traditional_Food
1. Topic- Traditional and Modern Influences on Hanbok
2. Writer- Hsu Yin Win, May Thet Myat Noe, Yinmin Aye
3. Short explanation-About hanbok's past and present-day dress. It is divided into traditional and modern.
Hanbok is a Korean term for traditional Korean attire. Hanbok is one of the world's most gorgeous fashion trends and has been popular for almost 2,000 years. When you have seen the hanbok in your favorite Korean drama or on your favorite K-Pop artists, you might have questioned what type of clothing hanbok is. The traditional clothing of the Korean people is called hanbok. It is only worn these days on special occasions as well as on anniversaries. Many Koreans keep a hanbok for special wear for such events. The classic hanbok was gorgeous in its own right, yet over the years, the style has gradually evolved. The unique lines of hanbok appear at their greatest when the wearer is in motion. Hanbok is creative and expressive in its design. Not a few people are truly aware of its rich history and significance. In this comprehensive overview of Korean fashion, let's examine what the hanbok and its influence are.
Hwarot (Hangul: 활옷) - In Goryeo and Joseon dynasties, Hwarot or Hwal-Ot was worn as formal dress among upper-class people. It was the full dress for the princess and the king’s daughter by a concubine, later becoming a wedding dress for ordinary women. Jeogori (top jacket) and Chima (skirt) were worn under Hwarot. There were different patterns embroidered on Hwarot that all stated different roles in society. They were mostly dragon, phoenixes, lotuses, butterflies, and the ten traditional symbols of longevity: the sun, mountains, water, clouds, rocks or stone, pine trees, the mushroom of immortality, turtles, white cranes and deer. All these Korean historical patterns held meanings of longevity, good luck, wealth and honor. There were also blue, red and yellow stripes in each sleeve of Hwarot. Wonsam (Hangul: 원삼) - During the Joseon dynasty, Wonsam was the attire for a married woman as a ceremonial topcoat. As it is mostly worn by the royal family, noble women and high-ranking officials, the colors and patterns varied according to the Korean class system. Wonsam for upper class women usually had two-colored stripes in both sleeves. Commoners wore Wonsam only as wedding dress. Dangui (Hangul: 당의) - The queen, princesses and wives of high-ranking government officials wore Dangui or Tangwi at minor ceremonies, while other noble classes wore at major ones during the Joseon dynasty. Dangui were made of different materials as seasons changed. During the Joseon dynasty, they were part of bridal wear for ordinary-class women. The most common colors for Dangui were yellow and/or green, while the emperor and the queen wore separate colors, purple and red respectively. Accessories - Women wore Hanbok together with accessories. The first one was Binyeo or Pinyeo, which was an expression of chastity and decency to women. It was a traditional hairpin and had a divergently shaped tip as its uses for ornament were varied depending on social status. Another one was Danggi, an adornment to bind braided hair. It was a traditional Korean ribbon simply made of cloth. The type of accessory that was commonly worn among all women from all social ranks was Norigae (Hangul: 노리개), a typical traditional accessory. Yet, the size and material of the Norigae highlighted the social status of a awoman. The footwear for married women during the Joseon dynasty was Danghye or Tanghye (Hangul:댕기). The decorations on Dangye represented longevity. These included trees bearing grapes, pomegranates, flowers like chrysanthemums, or peonies.
Dressing difference according to social statuses
King - The religious and formal ceremonial robes for the king during the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties were called Myeonbok (Hangul: 면복), comprised of Myeonryu-Gwan (Hangul: 면류관) and Gujang-Bok (Hangul: 구장복). Myeonry-Gwan had cotton wads in its both sides and beads that hung loose. The former were supposed to make the king oblivious to the influence of corrupt officials while the latter were to prevent from seeing wickednessGujang-Bok was black and bore nine representative symbols of the king, dragon, fire, pheasant, mountain, tiger, monkey, rice, axe and water plant. Royal family Ladies - While the king had Myeonbok, women in the royal family wore Jeokui, also known as Tseogwi (Hangul: 적의). The embroidered patterns on Jeokui were often the depictions of pheasants as “Jeok” itself means pheasant. Although it was worn among royalties, colors differentiated status symbols. The color of the empress’s Jeokui was purplish-red and Hwarot was with a dragon embroidered on it. The empress put on yellow Wonsam usually with red and blue colored stripes on each sleeve, purple Dang-Ui and purple-red Jeokui depending on different occasions. As for the queen, Hwarot had phoenix design on it. Wonsam was red with blue and yellow striped sleeves, red Dang-Ui and pink Jeokui. All princesses wore Hwarot with floral patterns and dangui. However, at ceremonial occasions, the crown princess wore a purplish-red Wonsam while a king’s daughters by a concubine had to wear green. Only the crown princess was qualified to wear pink-colored Jeokui. Other high-ranking people - Aristocratic wives wore Hwarot that had clouds and cranes patterns. Their Wonsam were green and they donned different colors of Dangui as major ceremonial garments. Lower class or commoners - Since the Goryeo dynasty, commoners wore Hwarot as a bridal wear. In the Joseon dynasty, Wonsam joined Hwarot and became part of the wedding hanbok. Their Wonsam did not have specific features, they wore with colorful stripes and ribbons. Cheolique (Hangul: 철릭) - Joseon dynasty kings and military officials wore Cholique, a type of clothing created to be convenient for archery and horse riding. By the end of Joseon dynasty, it became a garment for more casual situations. Ayngsam or Aengsam (Hangul: 앵삼) - Scholars wore yellow Aengsam during the national government exam and governmental ceremonies. The highest-scoring student in the exam was awarded with green Aengsam, sometimes it was with red Aengsam if that scholar was young. Footwear - The king and queen wore various colors of shoes. The king’s shoes were called Jeokseok, that were red and secured by ankle ribbons. The queen wore blue shoes, Cheongseok, which were also with ribbons to tie around ankles. Shoes that were used by married women in the Joseon dynasty were called Danghye (당혜), which were of two kind, Kunghye (궁혜) for ladies in upper class and Onhye (온혜) for ordinary women. Farmers and servants wore straw shoes, Jipsin, and Mituri, which were made of hemp fibers, were worn by women or scholars.
Modern Hanbok is a style term that refers to hanbok (Korean traditional clothing) mixed with Western and other cultural fashion influences. Modern hanbok can vary from traditional hanbok in terms of skirt or pants length, fabrics, materials used patterns, traditional colors, and accessories. A person who wears modern hanbok has a more freedom style compared to traditional hanbok. While traditional hanbok is mainly worn during holidays, festivals such as Chuseok and Seollal, and celebrations such as weddings, milestones birthdays, modern hanbok is worn as “daily wear “and can be defined as street fashion. Fashion designers are also trying to make modern hanbok inspired by traditional hanbok. Modern hanbok designers want everyone to enjoy hanbok, regardless of its shape or form, while retaining the classic elements of the hanbok style that is unique to Korean culture. Today, among Koreans, modern hanboks are worn in various styles and colors. They wear it at home, even when they go to school, offices, and markets anytime. But the important thing to know is that there is no wrong way to wear modern hanbok- it’s a comfortable, fun way to honor traditional Korean clothing, and there are so many different ways to wear it that there are bound to be a style you will like. In recent times, K-pop and K dramas have come to hanbok’s rescue, and Korean period dramas on Netflix like “Mr. Sunshine” and “Kingdom” have become popular. They have drummed up interest in Korean culture and tradition globally. You can see the evolution of hanbok through these historical dramas. In addition, K-pop idols like BTS and Black pink have made hanbok a new trendy fashion item. They did this by incorporating hanbok in their music videos. K-pop has become a way for the global audience to get a glimpse of traditional Korean culture. This has encouraged all K-pop fans to explore Korea’s traditional beauty.
Topic - CSAT Handwriting Certifying Statement (수능 필적 확인 문구란)
Author - Thadar Soe @ 다다
This article covers elements related to the history, process of choosing CSAT Handwriting Certifying Statement (수능 필적 확인 문구란), and requirements. It also presents all of the statements used over the years, for each grade.